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Deduction of the Theory | Mass and Energy | Evaluation of the Theory | Test of the Theory

| Proof: Special Relativity is Wrong

Evaluation of the Quantum Ether Theory

All the relativistic relations derived in connection with the Quantum Ether Theory are based on the existence of the zero-point field, which is a combination of the lowest energy states of all fields. This is in line with Hendrik Antoon Lorentz's derivation of the Lorentz contraction from the existence of an ether, [1] where the relativistic relations likewise arose from a motion relative to the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic field.

Evaluation of the Quantum Ether Theory

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Relativity in the Quantum Ether Theory 

The theory not only looks at the electromagnetic field, but incorporates all fields that propagate at the speed of light, which is especially true for the gravity field, which can be seen from, that gravity is of electromagnetic nature.

From Maxwell's equation of the propagation of light, we know that: [2]

    μ0ε0= 1/c2,        where μ0 is the magnetic constant and ε0 is the electric constant of the zero-

                            point field, and c is the speed of light in the zero-point field,

and from the quantum theory we know that: [3]

    E = hf ,             where E is the energy, h is the quantum of action, also called Planck's Constant,                             and f is the frequency of a wave-particle,

and finally we have, according to the mass energy equivalence, that: [4]

    E = mc2,           where m is the mass and c is the speed of light in vacuum.

From these equations we find, that the mass, m, is equal to:

    m = E/c2 = μ0ε0hf.

It is seen that the mass of a particle is a result of the underlying electromagnetic field, since μ0 is the magnetic constant and ε0 is the electric constant of the zero-point field, and since μ0, ε0, and h all are constants, the mass and the inertia of a wave-particle only depends on its frequency, that is: the higher the frequency, the heavier the particle, and the greater its inertia.

Since the gravitational force according to Newton's law of universal gravitation equals: [5]

    F = Gm1m2/r2,   where G is the gravitational constant and r is the distance between the center

                            of mass of the particles,

we find that:

    F = G(μ0ε0h)2f1f2/r2.

From the expression it can be seen that the gravitational force only depends on the frequency of the particles and their mutual spacing. Furthermore, since both the magnetic constant, μ0, and the electric constant, ε0, is included in the term, there is much to suggest that the gravitational force is of electromagnetic nature, why it, just as the electromagnetic radiation, propagate with the speed of light, c, in the zero-point field, which is in agreement with the Quantum Field Theory.

Relativity in the Quantum Ether Theory

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The Space is Euclidean

In connection with the derivation of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory, it is crucial that the space is Euclidean. When we consider the expressions for the length contraction x' = x(1 - v2/c2)½ and the "time dilation" t' = t(1 - v2/c2)½ - which occur both in Lorentz theory of "Electromagnetic phenomena in a system moving with any velocity smaller than that of light.", [1] and in Einstein's relativity, [6]

- it is seen, that the time is shrinking with exactly the same factor as the length, so the time pass just as fast in a moving system as in a stationary system. So the time is absolute and universal even according to Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Albert Einstein.

When we look at space and time as a combined space-time, the time axis is then just as linear as the three coordinate axes, and since the curvature of space-time only depends on the time axis, the space does not curve. It means that the space is Euclidean, so the gravitational field cannot be explained by the curvature of space-time.

The gravitational field must therefore be generated by gravitons, just like the electromagnetic field is generated by virtual photons, where the virtual photons and the gravitons propagate in the zero-point field with the constant velocity c. This leads to the relativistic gravitational force, where

    FG' = Gm1m2/[r2(1 - v2/c2)]

has the same structure as the relativistic equation for the electromagnetic force. This relativistic gravitational force can for example be verified by its ability to explain the apsidal precession of the planet Mercury [7] and other relativistic phenomena that involve the gravitational force.

The Space is Euclidean

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Relativity has a Physical Explanation


Let us consider two particles A and B, which moves to the right with the common velocity v relative to the zero-point field and thereby relative to the propagation velocity, c, of the gravitational force. Let A be to the left of B. Since the force decreases with the square of the distance, and since B moves away from A, during the time it takes the force to get from A to B, the force on B will decrease; and since A approaches B, during the time it takes the force to get from B to A, the force on A will increase. Because the shortest distance (from B to A) provides the biggest forces, the body will shrink. This is due to the physical conditions, and since the physical dimensions of a moving clock is subjected to a similar length-contraction, the clock-time will, depending on the physical construction of the clock, be altered.


        Fig. Two particles A and B, which moves to the right with the commen velocity v.

However, since it is the clock-time that is altered, and not the flow of time t, and since the velocity of the photons propagate with the constant velocity c = (ε0μ0), where ε0 is the vacuum permittivity and μ0 is the vacuum permeability of the zero-point field, the product c·t is a linear function of time. So, when we choose to look at space and time as a combined space-time, the time axis is just as linear as the three coordinate axes, why the space is Euclidean.

From the constant propagation velocity of the forces (such as virtual photons and gravitons) relative to the zero-point field, it is possible to calculate the relativistic forces on bodies that move relative to the field and thereby relative to the forces that bind the bodies together. The theory explains in this way all the relativistic relations such as the length contraction, the "time dilation", the relativistic mass, the mass-energy equivalence, the black holes, the influence of the gravitational field on the clock-time, and the deflection of mass and energy in a gravitational field, where the mass m of a wave-particles, such as light, is equal to m = "ε0μ0E = "ε0μ0hf. The Quantum Ether Theory gives in this way a physical explanation of relativity.


Relativity has a Physical Explanation

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Inertial Systems and Relativity

In relation to relativistic questions, inertial systems should be depicted symmetrically, as they otherwise will give a distorted picture of reality.

Consider the interrelations between two coordinate systems that move relative to each other in the Zero-Point Field. We regard the two coordinate systems S and S', and assume that the length of the coordinates in S is equal to the length of the coordinates in S', when both the coordinate systems are at rest in relation to the ZPF, so lxl = lx'l, lyl = ly'l, and lzl = lz'l, when the coordinates x; y; z in S, and x'; y'; z' in S', all have a velocity equal to zero relative to the ZPF.


                Figure: The length contraction of the coordinate axes.

We assume now, that the coordinate system S' has a constant velocity v relative to the coordinate system S, such that the coordinate system S' has a parallel motion along the x-axis, and the origin O' moves out of the positive x-axis in the reference system S, which we assume is at rest in the ZPF. Furthermore, the two reference systems are arranged so they are fully symmetrical.

Seen from the stationary system S, the x'-coordinate will, because of the motion of the x'-axis relative to the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic forces that hold the axis together, be equal

to x(1 - v2/c2)½, measured in the system S. This means that seen from S, the length of the x'-axis will be exposed to a length contraction, because of its velocity v relative to the Zero Point Field (ZPF), so the length of the coordinate axis from 0 to x' measured in the coordinate system S becomes:

    lx'l = lxl(1 - v2/c2)½.

Seen from the moving system S', the x-coordinate will, because the x-axis is at rest relative to the Zero Point Field, be equal to x'/(1 - v2/c2), measured in the system S'. This is because of the length contraction of the x'-axis, owing to its velocity v relative to the propagation velocity of the electromagnetic forces that hold the coordinate axis together. This means that seen from S', the x-axis will be exposed to a length dilation, because it is at rest relative to the Zero Point Field (ZPF), so the length of the x-axis from 0 to x measured in the coordinate system S' becomes:

    lxl = lx'l/(1 - v2/c2)½.

It is seen that there are no paradoxes, both observers find exactly the same value for the length contraction.

The y'-axis and z'-axis, which both are perpendicular to the direction of motion, will however, only be exposed to minor length contractions. This is because the speed of a solid body relative to the zero-point field, has an influence on the relative velocity of the electromagnetic forces that hold the body together. If we take a look at the drawing below


          Figure: The electromagnetic forces in a body with the velocity v in the x-direction.

it is easy to imagine, that all the oblique forces (not shown in the figure) between the different atoms, will be exposed to changes, depending on their angle in relation to the direction of motion. So a solid body that moves in the x-direction will also be exposed to length contractions in the y- and z-direction. This correlation between the extent of a body and its velocity relative to the zero-point field was also found by H. A. Lorentz. [1]

That is: relativity arises as a consequence of the final constant velocity of the forces relative to the zero-point field, such that when a body moves relative to the zero-point field, it also moves relative to the propagation velocity of the forces, whatever it is the gravitational or electromagnetic field. Relativity is accordingly a physical quality.

Inertial Systems and Relativity

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Evaluation of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory

The evaluation compares the results of the theory with many of the observations and measurements already available of our Universe. It is done, because a theory among other things should be judged on how well it describes the physical reality that surrounds us.

By comparing the Euclidean Cosmos Theory with the recent observations of our Universe, there has not been any observations - such as, the early star formation, the network structure, the apparent expansion, the dark matter, the dark energy, etc. - that the Euclidean Cosmos Theory has not been able to give a rational logical explanation of.

The observational values that I hold the theory up against rely, among others, on the Concordance Cosmology Model. These observational values are quite excellent to verify, whether the proposed theory is tenable. This is because the Lambda CDM or Concordance Model evidently is in concordance with the latest observations of our Universe.

Many of the physical phenomena relating to cosmology are of such a magnitude that it can be difficult to develop a test, which is able to confirm or refute a theory about the Cosmos. In such cases, it may be more useful to regard the physical realities that the theory describes. Moreover, our Universe itself performs the most spectacular tests, whose results it is hard to get around, although laboratory experiments are pointing in another direction. Therefore, we will here stick to the physical observations in connection with the evaluation of the theory.

Evaluation of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory

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The Observations support the Euclidean Cosmos Theory

All the observations that have been performed in connection with our Universe support the Euclidean Cosmos Theory. This applies, for example, to the distribution of energy in a galaxy, where the theory leads to, that the energy due to gravity collects around the center of a galaxy, where the nebulae and stars are lying among the black holes and barren objects that make up the skeleton of the galaxy; or the generation and distribution of energy in the Universe, which can be explained by known physical laws, where the regenerative processes create the energy for the new stellar nebulae; or the plasma red-shift that do not need a big bang to explain the observed red-shift; or the Great Walls that are created during hundred of billions of years; or the existence of stars, galaxies, and quasars as far as we can see; or the existence of metals even at the highest red-shift; and so on....

In the following chapters, we will look at some examples that support the Euclidean Cosmos Theory.

Besides, I will just add, that by comparing he Euclidean Cosmos Theory with the recent observations of our Universe, there has not been any observations - such as, the early star formation, the network structure, the apparent expansion, the dark matter, the dark energy, etc. - that the thesis has not been able to give a rational logical explanation of.

The Observations support the Euclidean Cosmos Theory

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Free Particles can Escape from a Black Hole

The source of the most essential regenerative processes are the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at the center of the galaxies. Since the black holes with their neutron stars, which generate the Active Galactic Nuclei, are a result of a mass concentration in the Euclidean space, the particles will be able to leave the black holes, if they are able to achieve a velocity that is greater than the speed of light.

Particles that are bound together by forces that propagate with the speed of light, will however not be able to leave a black hole, since the mass, m, of the particles approaches infinity, when the velocity approaches the velocity of light, as:

    m = m0/(1-v2/c2)½.

However, free particles like the quarks and guons in a quark-gluon plasma, which are not bound together by forces that propagates with the velocity of light, c, will be able to achieve velocities greater than the speed of light. Such free particles will be able to reach a velocity equal to 2½c before their mass approaches infinity. This can be seen from the found expression of the relativistic mass, m', of a wave-particle with the velocity v relative to the zero-point field, which are located in a gravitational field at the distance r from the center of mass with mass M:

    m' = m0/[1 - v2/(2c2) + GM/(rc2)].

Since the relativistic mass m' of a single wave-particle with a velocity v is less than or equal to

m' = m0/(1 - v2/2c2), the hot, dense quark-gluon plasma will not have any problems leaving the black hole.

Free Particles can Escape from a Black Hole

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The Farthest Objects are Observed as Galaxies, and Quasars

Since even the most luminous objects, such as galaxies and quasars, which are more than 13.39 billion light years away, for the moment are too far away to be observed, it will first be possible to study such objects, when we get more powerful telescopes. Additionally, if we one day will be able to observe the circumference of our Universe, we may observe an asymmetric distribution of visible matter, reflecting our position relative to the center of our Universe.

Since all the universes according to the theory are closed, it will normally not be possible to test whether there exists more than one closed universe. It means, that our closed Universe only will be able to receive information from the outside, when our universe merge with an other universe or a barren object. However, there is nothing to prevent us from testing the part of the theory, which concerns our own closed Universe.

The Farthest Objects are Observed as Galaxies, and Quasars

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The Oldest Star is older than the Big Bang

One single star at an age greater than the time since the Big Bang, is enough to overthrow the Big Bang theory, and support thus indirectly the Euclidean Cosmos Theory. Researchers at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore have found a star with an age of 14.5 billion years, plus-minus 0.8 billion years, [8] which, with a certain probability, makes it older than the calculated age of the Universe of 13.80 ± 0.04 billion years.

The star can be seen with binoculars. It is, to be precise, an apparent 7.223 magnitude [9] high-velocity Population II subgiant with a low metal content [Fe/H] = -2.40 ± 0.10, [10] about 190.1 light years away from the Earth in the constellation Libra. [9], [11]

The subgiant has a location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where the absolute magnitude is most sensitive to stellar age, and because the subgiant, with spectral type A, is bright, nearby, un-reddened, and has a well-determined chemical composition, the age of the star can be determined with great precision. [8]

From the true distance of the star, an exact value for the star's intrinsic brightness can be calculated, by the help of which the age of the star can be estimated by applying theories about the star's burn rate, chemical abundances, and internal structure.

The star, which is catalogued as HD 140283, has been known for more than a century. Its high rate of motion is an evidence of that the star is a visitor to our stellar neighborhood, where its orbit carries it down through the plane of our galaxy, from the ancient halo of Population II stars that encircle the Milky Way, and eventually returns it to the galactic halo.

The star was probably born in a primeval dwarf galaxy, which eventually was gravitationally shredded and sucked in by the Milky Way more than 12 billion years ago. The star has since retained its elongated orbit from that event, why it now pass through the solar neighborhood at a speed of 1,300,000 km per hour. However, if the cradle of the star was a metal-poor dwarf galaxy, the dwarf galaxies, which appear to be coeval with globular clusters, are probably older still. [12]


        Figure: Hertzprung-Russell diagram.

Because Population II stars collectively represent an older population of stars, the star has a deficiency of heavier elements compared to other stars in our galactic neighborhood, such as the sun, which formed later in the disk. This means that the star formed at a very early time before the molecular clouds were filled with heavier elements from supernova explosions. [11] It contains however still so much metal, that there at the time of its formation must have been enough to provide it with a certain metallicity.

The result is that the star's age is estimated to 14.5 ± 0.8 billion years, with an uncertainty, which makes it comparable with the age of our Universe at 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years. So when the time for the creation of the environment is included, which is a condition for the generation of a star with such a metallicity, [8] we do have a problem.

The metal content of HD 140283 is equal to [Fe/H] = -2.40 ± 0.10. This is at least ten thousand times more than the first primordial gas clouds contain, which are estimated to have a metallicity of less than -6.0. The question is, where does this metal come from, and how long does it take to produce such a quantity of metals.

Despite HD 140283 is the oldest known star for which a reliable age has been determined, it is, given its low but non-zero metallicity, not quite a primordial star. It has been proposed that there might exist so-called Population III stars, which could contribute to the metal content, but since HD140283 already is of the same age as the Universe, there has not been the time for such a Population III to arise and spread its metals through supernova explosions. If we to the age of the star add the time it takes to create the surroundings that is a prerequisite for the found metallicity plus the birth and development the star, we have a universe with an age that by far exceeds the time since the Big Bang. There is therefore only one explanation to the existence of such a star, it must have been present at the time of the Big Bang. The existence of the star HD 140283 supports i this way the Euclidean Cosmos Theory.

The Oldest Star is older than the Big Bang

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Quasars are Observed between 750 million and 13.36 billion ly away

As our Universe according to the Euclidean Cosmos Theory has existed for a very, very long time, the activity of the stars, galaxies, and quasars must be reasonably constant, when we look back in time. Quasars or quasi-stellar radio sources are because of their luminosity the most energetic and distant members of the class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), so they are among the best sources, when we shall look back in time.

Quasars were first identified as being high red-shift sources of electromagnetic energy, including radio waves, and visible light. In size, they first appeared to be similar to stars, however with the development of new types of telescopes, the quasars look rather like extended sources similar to galaxies.
[13] Since their spectra due to multiple scattering contain very broad emission lines, unlike any known from stars, they got the name "quasi-stellar".

A quasar is a compact region in the center of a massive galaxy that has a central super massive black hole at the center,
[14] with a density as a compact neutron star. The size of the galaxies are around 10 -10,000 times the Schwarzschild radius of the black hole. When combined with the plasma red-shifts, the implications of the very high red-shifts are that quasars can be very distant and ancient. [15] Because they, besides some luminous galaxies, are among the most luminous, powerful, and energetic objects in our Universe, they are also among the farthest visible objects.


            Figure: An all-sky image of the distribution of some of the brightest 86 quasars.

Each of the quasars are emitting up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way, which contains about 300 billion stars. This radiation is emitted almost uniformly across the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to the far infrared. Most quasars emit near-ultraviolet wavelength of the 121.6 nm Lyman-alpha emission line of hydrogen, but due to the tremendous red-shifts of these sources, the peak luminosity has been observed as far to the red as 900.0 nm, in the near infrared.

Quasars are powered by accretion of material onto super massive black holes at the center of the galaxies. Some material may fall directly onto the black hole, while other may have an angular momentum around the black hole, which will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.
Because some quasars display very rapid changes in luminosity, which are fast in the optical range, and even faster in the X-ray range, they define an upper limit of the volume of the core of the quasars; which is not much larger than our Solar System.

The emission of such large amounts of power from such a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers the stars. This calls for an astonishingly high energy density,
[18] which supports that the energy is generated by a black hole with a neutron star at the center. Such central super massive black holes can convert on the order of 10% of the mass of an object into pure energy as compared to 0.7% for the proton-proton chain nuclear fusion process that dominates the energy production in sun-like stars. Furthermore, if it was not possible for the matter to leave the black hole, the galaxies would long since have ended up as huge black holes.

The masses of the large central black holes in quasars have been measured to 106 -109 solar masses. Several dozen of our nearby large galaxies, which show no signs of activity, have been shown to contain similar central black holes in their nuclei, so it is thought that all large galaxies have a black hole at the center, but only a small fraction are active and therefore seen as quasars. The quasars show us the locations where massive black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in their host galaxy.

It seems as if the quasars were much more common in the past, it is however because they, in addition to some galaxies, are energetic enough to be observed. This energy production ends when the super-massive black hole has consumed all the gas and dust in its vicinity. It means, that it is possible that most galaxies, including our own Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, and are now quiescent, because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate the regenerative processes.


    Figure: Distribution of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei in the sky. Small dots represent quasars     brighter than V < 17 mag, while crosses represent quasars brighter than V = 17 mag.

In the figure the dots and crosses represent the positions of quasars discovered to date, taken from Veron-Cetty & Veron catalog of quasars and AGN 2006. The gap in the distribution between the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres is due to the shade of the galactic plane. According to the distribution of the quasars in the figure, it can be seen that there is an overall uneven distribution of quasars. This picture recurs to some extent, when we consider the figure of "The Lopsided Universe" below.

More than 300,000 quasars are known,
[20] and the observed quasar spectra have red-shifts between 0.056 and 7.085. Applying Hubble's law to these red-shifts, show that they are between 750 million and 13.36 billion light-years away, [21], [22] which is at the very edge of our observable Universe.

The brightest known quasars devour 1000 solar masses of material every year, and the largest known quasar is estimated to consume matter equivalent to 600 Earths per minute, which is the ultimate verification of the reuse of energy. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for billions of years, quasars become ordinary galaxies when they have finished consuming the surrounding gas and dust. Quasars may later be ignited or re-ignited in dormant galaxies. This can be due to different scenarios, as when they at a later time merge with other galaxies, so the black holes are infused with fresh sources of matter. It has in fact been suggested that a quasar could form, when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own galaxy in approximately 3 - 5 billion years.
[16], [23], [24]

The existence of gigantic black holes as far as we can see, and the existence of resources that can deliver so huge amounts of matter, so that they can feed the black holes with an almost continuous flow of energy, can only be explained by that the Universe is much older than the Big Bang Theory prescribes.

Quasars are Observed between 750 million and 13.36 billion ly away

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The Old Quasars contain Metals and Carbon

The most common gases in the Universe are hydrogen and helium, so within astronomy, metallicity, which is designated Z, is the fraction of matter that is made up of chemical elements other than hydrogen and helium.

Through spectroscopic observations it has been demonstrated, that there occur a metal enrichment of the gas surrounding the nucleus of the galaxies even for the highest red-shift quasars.
[25], [26], [27], [28] It has for instance been found that even quasars, at a red-shift z ~ 6, which corresponds to an age of 13.2 billion years, has a metallicity several times the metallicity of our sun, [25] and in large galactic halos, at high red-shifts, the star formation rate turns out to be very high, yielding a quick increase of the metallicity. [29]

Several direct chemical measurements of circumnuclear gas in high-z quasars have established that both star formation and metal enrichment is fastest in the central regions. If we look at the density of the innermost 10% of the galaxy mass, the metallicity of the gas is between 3 and 5 times the solar metallicity, with a general trend to increase with mass.

Furthermore, statistical studies of local elliptical and spiral galaxies hosting supermassive black holes show that the most massive galaxies also are the most metal-rich, the reddest, and the oldest.
[31], [32] These galaxies show an excess of elements such as O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Ti, compared to the sun. [32], [33] This is suggestive of a very intense and short star formation activity or very old galaxies, since the bulk of the star formation has to be completed, before supernovae can contribute to the metal abundance of the interstellar medium.

By using near infrared and optical spectra, the metallicity of a sample of quasars in the red-shift range 4 < z < 6.4 has been investigated, which corresponds to an age of 12.7 Gly to 13.3 Gly. On average, the observed metallicity changes neither among quasars in the observed red-shift range 4 < z < 6.4, nor when compared with quasars at lower red-shifts.

Despite the very high metallicity in quasars at z ~ 6, at an age of 13.2 Gyr, there is an apparent lack of evolution in the metal and carbon content among quasars, at z < 6, and the minimum enrichment timescale of carbon is about 1 Gyr, i.e. longer than the age of the Universe at z ~ 6, which is only about 0.57 Gyr.
[25], [34]

Seen from the Big Bang theory this is certainly puzzling, since the Universe according to this model starts from scratch, at time zero. It might therefore be expected that there was a steady increase of the metal content, because of the steady supply of metals from the row of supernova explosions, which continuously provide the Universe with heavy particles.

However, according to the Euclidean Cosmos Theory, quasars are just galaxies, where the central nucleus one way or another has been provided with new energy. It may, for example, be due to an alteration of the mass distribution within the galaxy, or a collision with an other celestial body, which could be another galaxy. When quasars during a regenerative process spew out hydrogen and helium, it will probably be mixed up with the old gases from the accretion disk, so the central super-massive black holes spurt out material with a high metal content.

The Old Quasars contain Metals and Carbon

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The Dark Matter Halos consist of Baryonic Matter

A galactic halo is a collection of "dark matter" that encloses the galactic disk and stretches far beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass of the galaxy, and since halos consist of dark matter, they cannot be observed directly. But their existence can be derived from their effects on the movements of stars and gas in the galaxies.

The presence of dark matter in the halo can be inferred from the gravitational effect of the halo on the rotation curve of a spiral galaxy. Without large amounts of mass throughout the roughly spherical halo, the rotational velocity of the galaxy would decrease at large distances from the galactic center, just as the orbital speeds of the outer planets decrease with the distance from the Sun. However, observations of spiral galaxies, in particular radio observations of line emissions from neutral atomic hydrogen, show that the rotational velocities do not decrease with distance from the galactic center.

Through observations, we know that quasars consist of a compact region at the center of a massive galaxy that surrounds its central super massive black hole.
[14] When gas from the regenerative processes is distributed in the galaxies it will gravitate towards the center of mass of the galaxies. On the way towards the center, gravitational objects will capture a part of the hydrogen and helium, so a smaller part of the gas remains in the outer regions of the galaxies. [35]

However, most of the gas will stay relatively near the center of the galaxy, where the gas clouds will deliver the energy for the next generations of stars, [36] while the remaining gas, because of the gigantic gravitational field of the central black hole, will flow towards the center, where the gas along with the galaxy's old material will fall onto the accretion disc around the black hole. [37] The accretion rate onto the central black holes is observed to be directly proportional to the luminosity produced by the Active Galactic Nuclei, and the distribution of the most luminous Active Galactic Nuclei has its peak in the red-shift range of 2 - 3, corresponding to a Hubble distance of 11 Gly - 12 Gly. [38]

The black hole nucleus of the galaxy shines as an optical quasar until the reservoir mass is exhausted on a timescale of 107 yr. Since then, the host galaxy evolves passively and the black hole becomes dormant, apart from a possible reactivation. [39] The outflows from such quasars may reach velocities ranging from 0.1c to 0.4c, where c is the velocity of light. This is based on observations of X-ray broad absorption lines performed with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. [40]

It has also been observed that massive dark objects are present in essentially all the local galaxies with a substantial spheroidal component,
[41], [42], [43], [44] and the correlation between the mass of the black hole and the stellar velocity dispersion is already present at red-shift up to 3 ~ 12 Gly. [39], [42], [45], [46], [47]

Regarding the visible disk of the Milky Way Galaxy, it is embedded in a much larger roughly spherical halo of dark matter, whose density drops off with the distance from the galactic center. It is believed that about 95% of the Galaxy is composed of dark matter, which only interact with the rest of the galaxy through gravity. The luminous matter of our galaxy consists of approximately 9 x 1010 solar masses, while the dark matter is likely to include between 6 x 1011 to 3 x 1012 solar masses. [48]
The absence of any visible matter to account for these observations implies that there exist numerous unobserved objects such as burnt out stars and black holes.
[35], [49]

Furthermore, astronomers
now predict that large spiral galaxies like the Milky Way have hundreds of satellite galaxies orbiting around them. While a few satellites are visible, like the Magellanic Clouds, many other galaxies are too dim to see. [50] The cold atomic hydrogen gas, that comprise the outskirts of large spiral galaxies, is gravitationally confined to the galactic disk and extends much further out than the visible stars, sometimes up to five times the diameter of the visible spiral. This gas can be mapped by radio telescopes.

The indirect detection of dark baryonic matter as well as dwarf galaxies has an influence on planetary dynamics, and the galaxy evolution that is dominated by such satellites. The dark satellite galaxies create disturbances in the cold atomic hydrogen gas at the edges of the spiral galaxy's disk, and these perturbations reveal the mass, distance and location of the satellites.

A map of interstellar hydrogen could also help answer why the galaxies have not yet run out of gas.
[51] According to observations, most galaxies have just enough gas left to make stars for another billion years or so, but it is possible they could get the hydrogen from interstellar gases. As the methods for detecting baryonic dark matter gradually improves, more and more baryonic dark matter comes to light. Already now the outer edges of the Milky Way appear to be orbited by innumerable invisible galaxies, and within long, it will probably be possible to account for most of the dark matter.

Since the galaxies according to the Euclidean Cosmos Theory either are very old, or a result of the merger of old galaxies, the galaxies must primarily exist of burnt out stars. Because only around three solar masses are required to create a black hole, the black holes form the vast majority of the dark matter that surrounds the galaxies.

Imagine an infinitely old, closed Universe, where almost all the stars are burned out and transformed into invisible black holes. This is quite likely, as it only requires about 3.2 solar masses to create a black hole with a size of 9.4 km. Due to gravity, all the black holes will either collide or swirl around each other as giant invisible galaxies of all different kinds, which again have created all possible sorts of concentrations of galaxies, such as Great Walls, Giant Rings, Giant Strings and Super Clusters, which all are bound together by galaxy filaments. These threadlike galaxy filament formations can have a length of 160 to 260 million light-years, and form the boundaries between the large voids in the Universe.

These structures are made visible, whenever a black hole gets a density that is so high, that it is able to create a neutron star at the center. By further accumulation of matter the pressure at the center of the black hole may then rise to a degree that makes the black hole able to pass the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, whereby the black hole may explodes as an Active Galactic Nucleus and spread the lighter elements out into the surroundings. The lighter elements like hydrogen and helium assembles in this way in between or around the black holes and generate the gas nebulae, that later become the new stars. In this way, all the largest mass concentrations in and around the centers of the galaxies are lightened up, and that is all we see, when we observe the visible spectrum of our Universe.

The Dark Matter Halos consist of Baryonic Matter

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The many Regenerative Explosions are mirrored in the CMB

The cosmic microwave background provides some of the best knowledge we have about the structure, content, and history of the Universe. Through many years hundreds of experiments have been conducted to measure and characterize the signatures of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation. The NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has detected and quantified the large-scale anisotropies, and a series of experiments have later quantified CMB anisotropies on smaller angular scales.

By the year 2000, the BOOMERanG experiment (Balloon Observations Of Millimetric Extragalactic Radiation ANd Geophysics) measured the CMB of a part of the sky and reported that the highest power fluctuations occur at scales of approximately one degree. Together with other cosmological data, these results implied that the geometry of the Universe is flat.

In June 2001, NASA launched a CMB space mission called WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe). The first results from this mission were detailed measurements of the angular power spectrum at a scale of less than one degree. This space mission provided very accurate measurements of the large-scale angular fluctuations in the CMB structures. Later, in 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) Planck Surveyor

        Figure: All-sky map of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

was launched. It has measured the CMB at a smaller scale than WMAP and in 2013 the European-led research team behind the Planck cosmology probe released the mission's all-sky map of the Cosmic Microwave Background.

The map suggests that the subtle fluctuations in temperature were imprinted on the deep sky. From the CMB data, it is seen that our local group of galaxies appears to be moving at 369 ± 0.9 km/s relative to the reference frame of the CMB.
[52], [53] This is in accordance with Stefan Marinov's measurement of the velocity of the experimental equipment relative to the zero-point field, which he measured to 362 ± 40 km/s. [54] The motion results in an anisotropy of the data as the CMB appear to be slightly warmer in the direction of motion than in the opposite direction. The interpretation of this temperature variation is a simple velocity red-shift and blue-shift due to the motion relative to the CMB. According to the Euclidean Cosmos Theory, the rest frame of the CMB is the rest frame of the zero-point field.

From the CMB it can be seen that at very large scales there arise fluctuations in the power spectrum. The temperature variations are both larger than expected and aligned with each other to a very high degree. This is at odds with the standard cosmological model where the CMB anisotropies should be randomly oriented, not aligned. In fact, since the smaller-scale variations are random, it makes the deviation at larger scales much more strange. These large-scale deviations are reflected in temperature fluctuations much larger than any galaxy cluster. According to the Euclidean Cosmos Theory these large-scale deviations may reflect the position of the visible universe in relation to the center of our closed Universe.


    Figure: The lopsided Universe.

To measure the physical size of these anisotropies, one has to turn the whole-sky map of temperature fluctuations into a power spectrum. The power spectrum encompasses fluctuations over the whole sky down to very small variations in temperature. Smaller details in the fluctuations tell us about the relative amounts of ordinary matter. However, some of the largest fluctuations - covering one-sixteenth, one-eighth, and even one-fourth of the sky - are bigger than any structure in the Universe, and therefore representing temperature variations across the whole sky. Recent observations with the Planck telescope which is very much more sensitive than WMAP and has a larger angular resolution, confirm these observations. Since two different instruments recorded the same anomaly, instrumental error appears to be ruled out.

The CMB measurements show anisotropies, which mirror the fluctuations in the temperature of roughly 10 millionths of a degree or less. If these large anomalies are due to primordial physical phenomena, the impact of the results is huge. These coherent temperature variations are much larger than expected, and are at odds with the theoretical expectations of the standard cosmological model, according to which the CMB anisotropies should be randomly oriented, not aligned.

In addition to specifying our location relative to the entire Universe, the fluctuations also indicate the network structure of the universe, such as the distribution of galaxies, galaxy-clusters, super-clusters, sheets, walls, and filaments, which are separated by immense voids, creating a vast foam-like structure called the cosmic web. These structures can only be created through hundreds of billions of years.

The many Regenerative Explosions are mirrored in the CMB

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