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Deduction of the Theory | Mass and Energy | Evaluation of the theory | Test of the theory

| Proof: Special relativity is wrong

Test of the theory of the Structure and Composition of the Cosmos


Many of the physical phenomena relating to cosmology are of such a magnitude that it can be difficult to develop a test, which is able to confirm or refute a theory on the Cosmos. In such cases, it may be more useful to regard the physical realities that the theory shall describe. Moreover, the Universe is itself performing the most spectacular tests, whose results it is hard to get around, although laboratory experiments are pointing in another direction. Therefore, we will here stick to the physical observations in the evaluation of the theory.

A test of that part of the theory, which deals with our part of the Universe, could include the following physical conditions:

  • The theory must provide a logical explanation of the observations of the Universe.
  • A black hole may cause a Big Bang.
  • If, we eventually get instruments that can detect the weak radiation from the barren objects, it must be possible to find celestial objects older than the Big Bang, or objects that are located more than 13.7 billion light years away, as we can already observe their gravitational pull.
  • Observe if the first "star formation" is extremely early and vigorous because of the existence of  "old" dark matter such as black holes and burnt out galaxies.
  • Examine whether the dark matter in galaxies is baryonic matter.
  • Examine whether the old mass is reflected in the net-like structure of the universe.
  • Examine whether the Big Bang is flat (W = Wr + Wm +  WL= 1).
  • Determine the velocity in relation to the zero-point field using Stefan Marinov's experiment.
  • Examine whether the gravitational forces are caused by gravitons.
  • Examine whether the age distribution of galaxies supports the theory.
  • If a black hole rotates during a Big Bang, the angular momentum must be transferred to the universe.
Test of the theory of the Structure and Composition of the Cosmos

















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The Zero-Point Field may cause a Deflection of the Needle of the Relativistic Velocity Meter

 

Since the mass is dependent of the velocity, where the relativistic mass m equals


                     
,

where m0 is the rest mass, v is the velocity of the body, and c is the velocity of the virtual photons, we can apply these characteristics to create a relativistic velocity meter.

 

The principle of such a speedometer can be outlined as follows. We place two heavy metal balls each with the mass m in a transparent tube, so the metal balls "frictionless" can move back and forth in the tube. At each end of the tube is mounted a spring, and the springs are then attached to each of the metal balls. The springs must have a length and elasticity, so even a small mass increase will result in a frictionless convergence of the balls because of an increased mass attraction. The tube with the balls can now be mounted horizontally in a wagon across the direction of travel. Then a distance meter is mounted that measures the distance between the two balls. Since an increase in the velocity of the vehicle results in an increase of the masses and hence their mutual attraction, the distance between the balls function as a measure of how fast the vehicle is running in relation to the zero-point field.

 

                  

      Fig. Velocity meter to measure the velocity relative to the zero-point field.

 

 

The gravitational force between the metal balls can, according the law of gravitation, be written as
 

                       ,


where G is the gravitational constant 6.67 x 10-11 Nm2kg-2, and y
the distance between the two centres of mass in the y-direction.

 

The mass perpendicular to the direction of motion, which is equal to the relativistic mass, can be expressed as

                       ,

 

where m0 is the rest mass of the metal balls.

 

If the distance between the centres of mass is equal to y, we get the following expression for the gravitational force between the metal balls moving with the velocity v in the zero-point field.

 

                       .

Here   (gamma) is equal to  , and k is a factor, which gives the proportion between the forces in the y-direction for a system in motion and a system at rest relative to the zero-point field. The factor
k is obtained as a result of the velocity v of the body and the propagation velocity c of the forces in the zero-point field.


If the gravitational force propagates with the speed of light c, the constant k
will according to this thesis be equal to , so the force between the particles becomes
 

      .
 

This is true for electromagnetic fields and probably also for gravitons, if they too propagate with the velocity c. It is thus seen that the force  and hence the distance y depends on gamma (), and as , the distance between the centres of mass is a function of the velocity v.

The Zero-Point Field may cause a Deflection of the Needle of the Relativistic Velocity Meter


































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Measure the Velocity of the Laboratory relative to the Zero-Point Field

The part of the present theory, which relates to the existence of the absolute space, is supported by Stefan Marinov's test. This experiment determines the velocity of the experimental apparatus relative to the zero-point field, which substantiates the theory-based assertion about an absolute space, and thereby overturns relativity. [1]

As the light according to the present theory propagates in the zero-point field, the speed of light will be constant in relation to this medium. This property can thus be used to measure the velocity of the laboratory, or rather the experimental set-up, relative to the zero-point field, as according to Stefan Marinov's own measurements is equal to 360 ± 40 km/s.

                     
                   
                      F
ig. 41. Measurement of the velocity relative to the zero-point field.

The experimental set-up is placed inside an evacuated chamber, so that we can ignore the drag ve-locity of any media, such as atmospheric air. In the chamber, we place two lasers, one at each end, both of which emit packages of laser light. The light is recorded by a photodetectors that in relation to the lasers are placed at the opposite end of the chamber.

If the chamber is at rest relative to the zero-point field, the wave packages will arrive at the same time. However, if the pressure chamber moves with a velocity v relative to the zero-point field, the light will have two different transmission speeds in relation to the pressure chamber, as the light has a constant velocity relative to the zero-point field. The transmission speed depends on the direction of the light relative to the velocity of the chamber. If the wave package from the laser moves in the same direction as the chamber, the light will travel a longer distance than when the light moves in the opposite direction. This applies even if the chamber is exposed to a length contraction by the factor .

Measure the Velocity of the Labora-tory relative to the Zero-Point Field


































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Test whether the Length Contractions can be Added and Subtracted

Since the length contraction occurs because of the velocity relative to the zero-point field, it must be true that the length contractions can be added and subtracted.

 

Suppose we have two reference systems, S' and S'', that move with the velocities v1 and v2 compared to the zero-point field. Let there be given a measuring-rod, and let its length be l when it is at rest relative to the zero-point field.

 

This means that the length of the measuring-rod in S', because of the length contraction, is equal to  and that the length of the measuring-rod in S'' equals .

 

Viewed from S' the length contraction in S'' will thus be equal to:

                       .

Test whether the Length Contractions can be Added and Subtracted

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Test whether there are Objects further away than 13.7 Billion Light Years


Since all the universes according to the theory are closed, it will not be possible to test whether there exists more than one closed universe. This is due to that the space between the universes has long since been emptied of mass and energy, so our closed Universe will never be able to receive information from the outside. However, there is nothing to prevent that we can test that part of the theory, which concerns our own closed universe. Since the Big Bang takes place in an existing Universe, we might be able to observe an explosive creation of luminous stars and galaxies dating back to the first time after the recombination, where the old objects attracted the newly formed hydrogen and helium.

However, objects more than 13.7 billion light years from Big Bang will not have received any energy from our Big Bang. Therefore, we shall be extremely lucky if we are to find bright objects outside the Big Bang. Only if these regions otherwise have received supplies of hydrogen and helium - as if there has been another Big Bang in the vicinity within an appropriate time frame - it would be possible to observe luminous objects outside of the range of the Big Bang. However, when we, one day, are able to observe the edge of our Big Bang, we might observe an asymmetric distribution of visible matter over the sky, reflecting our position relative to the centre of the Big Bang.
 
As the oldest areas of our Big Bang may lie near the point of explosion, it seems probable that we are located in the vicinity of the explosion. The reason is that this region through supernova explosions has had the time to spread the number of elements that is essential to life. In addition, near the source of the Big Bang there has been sufficient time to develop galaxies with quiet stable solar systems, which is a prerequisite for the development of higher life forms.

Test whether there are Objects further away than 13.7 Billion Light Years

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Conclusions

Einstein's special theory of relativity possesses several paradoxes, such as for instance the twin paradox and the ladder paradox. However, in the world that surrounds us there are no paradoxes. The present theory proves that Einstein's definitions of both the principle of relativity and the universality of the speed of light do not hold good, and as these definitions constitute the basis of Einstein's theory of relativity, it entails, that the theory falls. On this background, it is possible to provide a description of the structure and composition of the Cosmos based on the Euclidean space and the quantum field theory.


Since, the velocity of light is constant in the zero-point field and independent of the movement of the source, which follows from the equation , the constant velocity of light can be used as a basis for the definition of an absolute, universal time, where . Since the time can be defined by a given length and the constant velocity of light in the zero-point field, the time gets just as rigid as the coordinate axes, whereby space is Euclidean.


Since the electromagnetic forces between the particles are transferred at the constant speed of light, the objects, which have a velocity relative to the zero-point field, will be exposed to a length contraction in the direction of velocity. An observer, who is in a coordinate system that moves relative to the zero-point field, will thus measure a different time because of the length contraction. However, since the time is reduced by exactly the same factor as the length, the time will pass just as fast in the moving system as in the stationary system.

 

So it is the clocks that are slow and not the time. How much the clocks differ from the stationary clocks depends on their design and orientation relative to the direction of motion. In a gravitational field the clocks will likewise be slower, because of a change of frequency of the photons in a gravitational field.


The time is exactly the same everywhere, regardless of whether we are in a stationary system or in an inertial system, which is in motion relative to the zero-point field - the clocks does just not show the same time. It is thus possible to experimentally determine, which of two inertial systems that move the fastest relative to the zero-point field, as the clocks are slowest in the inertial system that has the highest velocity relative to the zero-point field.

 

Because of the length contraction, the mass of an object depends on its velocity relative to the zero-point field. The velocity dependence of the mass means that we can use this property to create a relativistic velocity meter to measure the velocity relative to the zero-point field.

Since the time is absolute and universal, it entails that the space-time is completely flat, while the mass and energy due to gravity curve in the flat space. Since the space is flat, gravity is not due to the curvature of space-time, but to gravitons. It is these properties of time and space, which is the basis of the energy distribution in the Cosmos.

 

In light of the inferred relationship between time and space, is it possible to create a theory of the energy distribution in the Cosmos. The assumptions are that:

  • The law, of conservation of energy holds good.
  • The space is Euclidean.
  • No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum.
  • Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field.
  • The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time.
  • We exist.
  • Quantum theory does not allow singularities.

As the energy is constant, and the space is Euclidean we find that the Cosmos has existed infinitely long. This implies that the gravitational forces must produce a mass distribution, in the infinite flat space, where the mass and energy will accumulate in larger and larger units, until there arise equilibrium in the Euclidean space.

 

The larger and larger units will assemble into black holes and closed universes, and since the quantum field theory does not allow singularities, even the closed universes will, as energy is depleted, end up as giant black holes. Nevertheless, as we exist there must be a way out - there must exist a way in which a black hole can be converted into pure energy in a Euclidean space - that is to say that a black hole must be able to explode in a Big Bang!

 

We can thus conclude that the Cosmos consists of an infinite vacuum in which there is one or more closed universes (and perhaps barren objects), which all contain a constant amount of matter and energy. If there are more closed universes and barren objects, they will move away from each other, with velocities that for each of them are bigger than the escape velocity from the overall system, or be in a stable, dynamic equilibrium. Moreover, there must, in each of the closed universes, occasionally be an explosion in the form of a Big Bang, since each universe otherwise ultimately will consist of black holes and barren objects.


Comment: In honour of those who can imagine an infinite and simultaneously constant amount of energy we will let the amount of mass and energy approach infinity. According to the theory, this can end up in two scenarios. If the density of matter and energy is relatively small, the Cosmos will consist of an infinite vacuum, in which there are an infinite number of closed universes and barren objects, which all are in an almost stable dynamic equilibrium. If, on the contrary, the density of matter and energy is sufficiently large, the Cosmos will only consist of one single coherent Universe. In both cases, there must occasionally occur an explosion in the form of a Big Bang, since the universes, or the Universe, otherwise ultimately will consist of black holes and barren objects.


Depending on the size of a given universe, a Big Bang could occur well before all the substance in the universe is gathered in a massive black hole, and as the universe is closed, long before the whole universe has approached a Big Crunch. When a Big Bang occurs, it will because of the incredibly huge shock wave, spread the surrounding material to such a degree, that the density of matter and energy in the centre of the Big Bang eventually becomes equal to the density of matter in the rest of the universe.


The fact that a Big Bang takes place in an existing universe, implies, that right from the start there exists accumulation points in the form of black holes and burnt-out galaxies that form the background for an extremely fast and violent development of stars and galaxies. Moreover, already from the start of the Big Bang there will exist old substance, which could drag accumulation tracks in the gases from the Big Bang, whereby the old matter will make its mark in the structure of the universe.


In the longer term, the earliest burnt-out celestial bodies lie as dark matter between the visible celes-tial bodies. Moreover, the surrounding universe will affect the expansion of the Big Bang, just as the surrounding universe influences a supernova explosion.


The theory states that a Big Bang arises from an explosion of a black hole, which in turn comes from a local collapse of a part of a universe. In that way, the black holes and old galaxies from the time before a Big Bang make up the dark matter, in that part of a universe that contains a Big Bang. Furthermore, the part of a universe, which lies outside the area of a Big Bang, has an impact on the expansion of a Big Bang. This is the substance called dark energy. The theory thus provides a logical explanation of dark matter and dark energy.
 
The theory thus solves the horizon problem, the smoothness problem, and the flatness problem and explains the network structure of the universe, and the mass distribution of galaxies. Finally, it can be concluded that the current series of dispersed Big Bangs, prevent the total collapse of our Universe. The theory thus provides a plausible explanation of many of the unanswered questions that still characterize our view of the Universe. It is questions like:

  • What was there before the Big Bang?
  • From where does the substance come to produce a Big Bang?
  • What triggered the Big Bang?
  • Why is the Universe so close to being flat?
  • Where are the missing 95.4 percent of dark matter and dark energy?
  • Why is background radiation so uniform compared to the structure of the Universe?
  • What forces are causing the apparent acceleration of the universe?
  • How could there arise such large black holes in an otherwise completely homogeneous universe in such a short time, that the existence of pulsars and quasars can be explained?
  • Why are some stars older than the accepted age of the universe? [2]
  • Why has the Universe not suffered from the heat death eons ago? [3]

As it can be seen, the theory answers all the questions that for the moment seem almost insur-mountable, both in relation to relativity and in relation to the composition of the Cosmos. The theory can thus largely be verified through all the questions it answers.

Conclusions












































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References


1. Stefan Marinov: "New Measurement of the Earth’s Absolute Velocity with the Help of the 
    “Coupled Shutters” Experiment", Progress in Physics, 2007.

2. K. MacPherson: "Satellite reveals trove of data from early universe", Princeton Weekly Bulletin,
    March 24, 2008, Vol. 97, No. 20.

 

3. P. C. W. Davies: "The last three minutes", Basic Books, New York, 1994.

 

References


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