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| Proof: Special Relativity is Wrong

Special Relativity is Wrong

The structure and composition of the Cosmos depends among other things on the geometry of space, i.e. whether the space is flat or curved. In a Euclidean flat space gravity is an attractive force between the substances in the Cosmos, while gravity according to Einstein's general theory of relativity is a geometric property of space-time.

Because Einstein's theory of relativity has an exceedingly strong influence on the interpretation of the structure of the Cosmos, the thesis begins with an analysis of the results of the special theory of relativity, and proves, that both the definition of simultaneity and relativity is wrong. Let us start with the principle of relativity, and briefly outline what is wrong.

As a consequence, of the Michelson and Morley experiments, will there according to Hendrik Antoon Lorentz, occur a length contraction in an inertial system S', which has a velocity (v) different from zero, relative to an observer who is situated in an inertial system S. Because of "the principle of relativity" that says: "The phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest. They suggest rather that, as has already been shown to first order for small quantities, the same laws of electrodynamics and optics will be valid for all frames of reference for which the equations of mechanics hold good." - there must occur a similar length contraction in the system S. [1]

This property of the principle of relativity can be used to derive the Lorentz transformation, which can thus be inferred solely from the constant velocity of light, the principle of relativity, and the isotropy of space. This means that we, just in the light of the special theory of relativity and the isotropy of space, find, the occurrence of length contractions and time dilations just because of the relative velocity of the inertial systems. [2]

This means that the Lorentz transformation in connection with the principle of relativity gets a some-what different interpretation than that interpretation the Lorentz transformation had, when it was linked to the ether theory. This is because the principle of relativity entails that there can be produced length contractions and time dilations in one inertial system, simply by changing the relative velocity of another inertial systems.

Let us consider two measuring-rods, with the coordinate values x and x', where the measuring-rods represent two inertial systems S and S'. If we use the Lorentz transformation and, at the same time accepts the principle of relativity, it is seen, that it is possible to change the coordinate value x' (as the measuring-rod shrinks), just by changing the relative velocity (v) of the measuring-rod with the coordinate value x, where

                  ,

t is equal to the time, and c is the velocity of light in vacuum.

The reason why we apparently can produce a length contraction of the measuring-rod in S', just by changing the relative velocity of the inertial systems S and S', is due to that the relative velocity is not linked to the surrounding physical world, so the length contractions are necessarily not real. Since there is no physical connection between the two inertial systems, in addition to their relative velocity, there is no reason that a change of the velocity of the inertial system S can produce a length contraction in the system S'.

In the current theory is the change of the length of the measuring-rod (and hence the coordinate value x') due to a change of its velocity (v) relative to the zero-point field, where the zero-point field is the quantum field with the lowest possible energy and whose existence has been demonstrated experimentally. [3] The reason is that the electromagnetic forces that hold the measuring-rod together propagate in the zero-point field with the velocity c. Therefore, when a change of the velocity (v) of the measuring-rod, relative to the velocity of propagation (c) of the electromagnetic forces, occurs, it will result in an alteration of its length.

Since the length contraction is a result of a motion relative to the zero-point field, it means that if the equation mentioned above is to be valid, the measuring-rod with the coordinate value x must be at rest relative to the zero-point field.

Moreover, the principle of relativity is incompatible with the quantum field theory, which is an essential part of the standard model. This incompatibility is due to that one cannot both have a quantum field in the form of a zero-point field as everything moves in relation to, and at the same time claim that all inertial systems are equal. Because, there will only be one system, which is fixed relative to the zero-point field, while all other systems will have a velocity relative to this field. Einstein's principle of relativity, which postulates, "the phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest.", is therefore wrong. For example, the length contraction and the time dilation depend on the velocity relative to the zero-point field. Furthermore, it is proved in the thesis "The Stucture and Composition of the Cosmos" that the method of special relativity for synchronization of the clocks does not hold either.

Special Relativity is Wrong





























































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Proof: The Principle of Relativity implies that no Length Contractions and Time Dilations can Occur

If we assume that the same laws are valid for all reference systems for which the electrodynamic, as well as the mechanical equations, are valid, there can be no length contractions or time dilations.

The starting point is Einstein's principle of relativity, which reads: "The phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest."
[1]

 

This means that independent inertial systems that move relative to one another all will be equivalent, and this applies regardless of how they acquired their relative velocity. It is therefore not possible to choose one inertial system over the others.

 

Let us assume that we have three completely identical inertial systems S, S' and S'', whose coordinate values are identical and coincide, when the three systems have a relative velocity equal to zero. Using a measuring-rod L, which is fixed relative to the coordinate systems, we mark out the coordinate values x0, x0', x0'' along the positive x-axes in respectively S, S' and S'', whereby the coordinates x0, x0', x0'' all are of equal length |x0|=|x0'|=|x0''|= L.


According to Relativity, the Length contractions become equal in two inertial systems with a relative velocity
v

We first consider the two inertial systems S and S'. We impart an impulse to each of the systems in the x-direction and x'-direction, so that S and S' get a relative velocity
v < c.
It implies that because of the velocity of S' seen from S, there must occur a length contraction in S' seen from S, and because of the symmetry, there must likewise occur a length contraction in S seen from S'. Since the systems are completely symmetrical, the size of the length contractions  is according to special relativity identical for the two systems. This can also be seen from the following:

Fig. Two inertial systems S and S', with the relative numerical velocity v.
 

We have specified that when the two inertial systems S and S' are at rest relative to each other, the coordinate values in S and S' have the same physical length, so |x0|=|x0'| at a relative velocity equal to zero.

 

We now consider the case where S and S' has a relative constant velocity v in the x- and x'-direction. According to the principle of relativity the length of the coordinate x0' seen from S is equal to   because of the length contraction, and seen from S' the length of coordinate x0 is, likewise because of the length contraction, equal to  .

As |x0|=|x0'|= L and as the coordinates x0 and x0' are subjected to the same relative increase in velocity v, their length contractions and hence their lengths are identical. This means

        ,

therefore, the length contractions are identical |x1|=|x1'|.

Proof: The Principle of Relativity implies that no Length Contractions and Time Dilations can Occur
 





















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The Fact, that the Length Contractions in the two Inertial Systems are of the Same Size, can be Interpreted in Two Ways

If the length contractions only occur, when they are observed from an inertial system that has a constant relative velocity compared with the system, where the length contractions seem to occur, the contractions will be termed as imaginary or pseudo. The treatment of the length contractions can accordingly be divided into two cases:

1) The case where the relative motion creates imaginary length contractions of the same size.

2) The case where the relative motion creates real length contractions of the same size.


1) The relative motion creates imaginary length contractions of the same size.
If the length contraction only can be perceived by an observer, who is moving relative to the system where the length contraction seems to occur, we will talk about an imaginary or fictitious length contraction.

When the length contraction only occurs when the observer is in an inertial system, which has a velocity relative to the system where the length contraction takes place, it is a pseudo-phenomenon. Since the size of the length contractions are identical in the two inertial systems S and S', an observer in S will due to the relative velocity of S' get the perception, that there is a length contraction in S', and conversely, when the observer is located in S', he will get the perception that there is a length contraction in S. Since the length contractions are equal in the two systems, it will not be possible to find any differences between the two systems by a comparative measurement.

This corresponds to a situation where an observer stands at one end of a road as we may call S, and observe a light pole at the other end of the road, which we call S'. The observer who is in S believe because of the distance to the light pole in S', that it is subjected to a length contraction. On the other hand, the observer who is situated in S' believe, it is the light pole in S that have been subjected to a length contraction. This means that the length contractions are imaginary or fictitious.


2) The relative motion creates real length contractions of the same size.
We look again at two inertial systems S and S', with coinciding x- and x'-axes. As previously, we assume that when the two inertial systems S and S' are at rest relative to each other, and the x- and x'-axis coincide, the coordinate values in S and S' will have the same physical length, so |x0| = |x0'|.

Fig. Two inertial systems S and S', with the relative numerical velocity v1.

We now impart a relative constant velocity v1 to S and S' in the x- and x'-direction, respectively. It results in that seen from S a length contraction occurs in S' and seen from S' a length contraction occurs in S. Since the systems are completely symmetrical, the sizes of the length contractions are according to the principle of relativity identical in the two systems.

That is to say, according to the principle of relativity the length of the coordinate x0' is seen from S equal to  because of the length contraction, and seen from S' the length of the coordinate x0 is because of the length contraction equal to

As |x0|= |x0'| = L, and as the coordinates x0 in S and x0' in S' are subjected to the same relative velocity change v1, their length contractions are also identical. This means that

      ,

therefore, the lengths of the contracted coordinates are equal, |x1|= |x1'|.

We now introduce a third inertial system S'', which is placed in the same direction as S', and in such a way that all three inertial systems S, S' and S'' have coinciding x-axes. When the relative velocity of the inertial systems is zero, we assume as previously that the coordinate values in S, S' and S'' have the same lengths, so
|x0| = |x0'| = |x0''| = L.

Fig. Three inertial systems S, S' and S'', with different velocities of S' and S'' relative to S.

We now look at S and S'' with the relative constant velocity v2 in the x- and x''-direction. We assume further that S and S' still have the relative constant velocity v1, and that . According to the principle of relativity the length of the coordinate x0'' seen from S is equal to    because of the length contraction, and seen from S'' the length of the coordinate x0 is, likewise, equal to because of the length contraction.

As |x0|= |x0''| = L
and as the coordinates x0 in S and x0'' in S'' are subjected to the same relative change of velocity v2
, their real length contractions and thus their actual lengths are also identical. That is to say:

      ,

so, the length of the contracted coordinates are equal, |x2| = |x2''|.

We now know that according to relativity the length of the coordinate value x0 in S, because of the relative velocity v1 of the inertial system S relative to S', is subjected to the real length contraction

               ,

and because of the relative velocity v2 of the inertial system S in relation to S'', is x0 in S subjected to the real length contraction

             
.

This means that the coordinate
x0
in S assumes two different lengths at the same time:

      .

 

We have thus proved that if relativity is true, there can be no real length contractions.

We can similarly introduce infinitely many inertial systems which all have different relative velocities to the inertial system S, whereby we will have that the coordinate x0 in S assumes infinitely many lengths at the same time. It is of course not possible, why we have to ascertain that Einstein's principle of relativity does not hold good.

 

In other words, there can be no real length contractions, if we as Einstein assume that: "The phe-nomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest."

 

The Fact, that the Length Contractions in the two Inertial Systems are of the Same Size, can be Interpreted in Two Ways








































































































































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Even if the Principle of Relativity was True, there could not arise any Time Dilations


Since the time dilation is a function of the length contraction, and since there can be no real length contractions according to the principle of relativity, there are also no time dilations. This may also be seen from the following analysis.

 

We now consider the times t and t' in two equivalent inertial systems S and S' with the relative velocity v.

             

              Fig. The times t and t' are identical in the two systems.

Since the inertial systems have the relative velocity v = |v| there exist as a result of the Lorentz contraction the following connection between the times of S' and S: [1]


              .


Viewed from the system S' the time is thus equal to t', and because of Einstein's theory of relativity the same physical laws apply to the inertial systems S' as to S. When we are in S' we find, therefore, that the inertial system S moves with the velocity v' = |v|. The time of S may then, viewed from S', be subjected to the time dilation:

              .

Altogether, we have, that seen from S the time of S' is exposed to the time dilation , and seen from S' the time of S is exposed to the time dilation , so

 

              .

We find, therefore, that whatever factor  that might exist between the times of the two symmetrical inertial systems, it will be true that

 

              .


Therefore, the times are identical in the two systems.

That is, if we have two inertial systems with the relative velocity v, there will be no time dilations if we as Einstein assumes that: "The phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest."


We have thus proved that if relativity is true, there can be no time dilations.

Altogether, we can thus conclude, that relativity only hold good if there are no real length contrac-tions or time dilations - but there does! From Michelson and Morley's experiment, [1] the decay of muons in the earth's atmosphere [4] and the mass increase of elementary particles in the cyclotron, [5] we know that there occur phenomena, which relate to real length contractions and time dilations, so there must exist physical conditions that cause these phenomena to take place.

Even if the Principle of Relativity was True, there could not arise any Time Dilations





















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Physical Conditions that cause Length Contractions and Time Dilations

Suppose again that we have two inertial systems S and S', with a relative numerical velocity v < csuch that seen from S there occurs a length contraction in S', and seen from S' there occurs a length contraction in S. Suppose that there is placed a measuring-rod in each of the inertial systems.  According the theory of relativity, both measuring-rods will thus be subjected to a length contraction.

If we imagine that we remove the inertial system S, will there then still occur a length contraction in the system S'?

Since the cause, of the length contraction in the inertial system S', cannot be due to the presence of the inertial system S (as we otherwise could change the length contraction in S', simply by changing the velocity of S or replace S with another inertial system with a different velocity) we may assume, that if there is a length contraction in S', the length contraction will continue to exist after we have removed the inertial system S. 

We imagine now that we remove both inertial systems, so only the measuring-rods are left behind with the relative velocity
v.
Will the measuring-rods then still be subjected to a physical length contraction?

If we remove both reference systems, but retain the physical conditions, what we have left are two measuring-rods that both are moving rectilinear through space, with a relative velocity v. Since there is no physical connection between the two measuring-rods, it may be possible to remove one of the measuring-rods, and thus concentrate on the other.

The only property that might influence the length contraction of the measuring-rod is its relative velocity, but as the relation to another measuring-rod cannot have any influence on the length contraction, the relative velocity should be measured against something that might affect its length. Since the electromagnetic forces that hold the measuring-rod together propagate with the velocity c in the zero-point field, it is likely that the measuring-rod creep when it is moving relative to this field.

According to the quantum field theory, the zero-point field is the quantum state with the lowest possible energy. Although this quantum state generally possesses no physical particles, this vacuum state is not empty, but contains volatile electromagnetic waves and particles that pop up and disappear, and serves as the medium in which the waves propagate. The existence of the zero-point field can be demonstrated experimentally by the Casimir effect. [6], [7], [8]

 

Since this field because of its low-energy content [9] does not posses any form of kinetic energy, the field is stationary. The particles that make up our universe may, as the field is present everywhere, be regarded as excited states of this quantum field, whereby the zero-point field provides a background against which all other velocities must be related.

One cannot both have a zero-point field that all particles relate to, and at the same time claim that relativity applies, that is to say that all inertial systems are equal, or with Einstein's own words, that: "The phenomena of electrodynamics as well as of mechanics possess no properties corresponding to the idea of absolute rest". [1]


Moreover, the quantum field theory yields an obvious explanation of the length contraction and time dilation, because, according to the quantum field theory, the electromagnetic waves, photons and other particles propagate in the quantum field. [10], [11] Since the electromagnetic forces, that hold the ponderable bodies together, according to quantum field theory, consist of virtual photons, a body that moves relative to the zero-point field must also be moving relative to the photons, which holds the body together, and thereby creating a length contraction. I.e. there is a physical reason for the existence of the length contractions. Since the length contractions also affect the clocks, the length contractions will also lead to time dilations.

Physical Conditions that cause Length Contractions and Time Dilations







































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Length contraction

Let us look at Michelson and Morley's interference experiment. [1] In this experiment, there was used an equipment that was in motion relative to the ether. Since the ether in the present theory is the zero-point field, we will look at the apparatus and its velocity relative to this field. The motion of the apparatus relative to the quantum field is composed of the earth's rotation around its axis, the earth's rotation around the sun, the sun's rotation of around the center of the Milky Way, the sun's wave motion relative to the galaxy plane, and finally the galaxy's velocity relative to the zero-point field.

           Fig. The path of light in Michelson's interferometer.

Despite the constantly changing velocity and direction of the apparatus with respect to the zero-point field, there was not found any changes of the velocity of light.

 

This stems from that light (whose interference we are measuring) has a constant velocity in the zero-point field. Since the virtual photons, which keep the apparatus together, have exactly the same constant velocity relative to the zero point field as the light, regardless of the relative velocity of the apparatus, these photons continuously change the extent of the apparatus in relation to its velocity relative to the zero-point field.
 

Length contraction

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As time is linear, space is Euclidean

A logical consequence of the presence of the zero-point field is that the light propagates in the zero-point field at a constant velocity c, as determined by the properties of the electric (dielectric con-stant of vacuum ) and the magnetic (the vacuum permeability ) field, so that . [12] In contrast to Einstein's special theory of relativity, which in 1905 was put forward on the bases of postulations on "the constant velocity of light" and "the principle of relativity", the quantum field theory thus gives a natural explanation of why light propagates with a constant velocity c. Accordingly, we find, just as Einstein postulated, that: "Light is always propagated in empty space with a definite velocity c, which is independent of the state of motion of the emitting body."

Moreover, it is not possible to ascertain a lapse of time if one does not have two consecutive events. Since the velocity of light is constant in the zero-point field, its rate of speed
c can bring about a description of the time. This is due to that the velocity
 is defined by how long it takes to travel a distance between two consecutive points. If we use a length , the time becomes through the expression  just as rigid as  and thus just as rigid as the coordinate axes xy and z. If we, therefore, define a length for the coordinate values, as for instance the meter, we have also defined a fixed time interval. This means that we can describe the space by the Euclidean geometry, - or in other words, that space is Euclidean.

However, since the definition of the time is linked to the length
 through
a length contraction will also cause time dilation. When the clocks, which themselves are made of quanta, are exposed to a length contraction, because they move with a velocity relative to the zero-point field or are in a gravitational field, they are also exposed to a time dilation. Therefore, it is the clocks and not time that is too slow. In the surrounding zero-point field (and in the y- and z-direction, where there are no length contractions), the time goes on as if nothing had happened.

Since the space is Euclidean, it becomes possible to evolve a consistent theory of the structure and composition of the Cosmos, based on the most solid laws of physics.

As time is linear, space is Euclidean

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References

1. Albert Einstein, et al.: "The Principle of Relativity", Dover Publications, New York.

2. Ture Eriksson, Torbjörn Lagerwall og Olof Backman: "Mekanik. Värmeläre", Almqvist & Wiksell
    Förlag AB, Stockholm 1970.

3. Cyriaque Genet, Francesco Intravaia, Astrid Lambrecht and Serge Reynaud: "Electromagnetic
    vacuum fluctuations, Casimir and Van der Waals forces", Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Paris, 2004.

4. Angela Hansen: "Measurement of Muon Lifetime and Mass Using Cosmic Ray Showers", University
    of Minnesota, 2001.

5. E. J. Lofgren: "The Proton Synchrotron", Science, Vol. 111, pp. 295 - 300, 24 March 1950.

6. Phillip F. Schewe and Ben Stein: "The Casimir Force", Inside Science Research - Physics News
    Update, number 300, American Institute of Physics, December 20, 1996.

7. U. Mohideen and Anushree Roy: "Precision Measurement of the Casimir Force from 0.1 to 0.9 μm",
    Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4549, issue of 23 November 1998.

8. Cyriaque Genet, Francesco Intravaia, Astrid Lambrecht and Serge Reynaud: "Electromagnetic
    vacuum fluctuations, Casimir and Van der Waals forces", Laboratoire Kastler Brossel,
    UPMC/ENS/CNRS, F75252 Paris.

9. Viatcheslav Mukhanov and Sergei Winitzki: "Introduction to Quantum Effects in Gravity",
    Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-86834-1.

10. Ryder, L.H. "Quantum Field Theory", Cambridge University Press, 1985.

11. Walter Dittrich & Gies H.: "Probing the quantum vacuum: perturbative effective action approach",
     Berlin: Springer, 2000. ISBN 3540674284.

12. John R. Reitz, Frederick J. Milford, Robert W. Christy: "Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory",
     Third Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979.


Other references

J. C. Maxwell: "On Physical Lines of Force", Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, London,
Edinburgh and Dublin, 1861.

Joseph John Thomson: "On the Effects produced by the Motion of Electrified Bodies", Philosophical Magazine, 5 11 (68): 229249, 1881.

Joseph Larmor: "Aether and Matter", Cambridge at the University press, 1900.

H. A. Lorentz: "Electromagnetic Phenomena in a system moving with any volocity less than that of light", Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam, 6, 1904.

Elie Zahar: "Why did Einstein's Programme supersede Lorentz's?", The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 1973.

The International System of Units (SI), 8th edition 2006, Organisation Intergouvernementale de la Convention du Mètre, STEDI MEDIA, 1, Boulevard Ney, 75018 Paris, 2006.

References















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