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Evaluation of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory


The evaluation compares the results of the theory with many of the observations and measurements already available of our Universe. It is done, because a theory among other things should be judged on how well it describes the physical reality that surrounds us.


The observational values that I hold the theory up against rely, among others, on the usual Big Bang Theory and the Concordance Cosmology Model. These observational values are quite excellent to verify, whether the proposed theory is tenable. This is because the Lambda CDM or Concordance Model evidently is in concordance with the latest observations of the Universe.

 

Besides, I will just add that during the evaluation I have encountered no observations of our Universe - like the early star formation, the network structure, the apparent acceleration, the dark matter, the dark energy, etc. - as the thesis has not been able to give a rational logical explanation of.

Evaluation of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory





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A Gravitational Collapse may lead to an Explosion 

 

The quantum field theory has so far been unable to give a physical explanation as to whether there is a connection between a Big Crunch and a Big Bang. Therefore, if we want to know what happens, we must seek an explanation by looking at our own Big Bang.

 

If we consider a closed universe, the mass and energy must because of the gravitational forces, accumulate in still larger black holes, as eventually will end up as one gigantic black hole. Since the space is Euclidean, the substance cannot escape the Euclidean space, and as the mass and energy are constant and quantized, the collapse will probably only stop when the total amount of matter and energy in the universe has reached the Planck density. This must be true to all the universes in the Cosmos.

 

There must, therefore, occur a Big Bang now and then, as the Cosmos otherwise would have been reduced to black holes and barren objects infinitely long time ago. Since black holes are the only objects we know of that are capable to provide the necessary energy for a Big Bang, it is very likely that a Big Bang results from the explosion of a black hole.

 

There is nothing to prevent that larger and larger black holes merge until they reach a possible upper limit for the total mass. Larry Smarr calculated the first numerical solution of a direct collision between two black holes of equal masses in 1979, [1] - while Matzner and associates in 1995 determined the specific details for the merger. [2]

 

The calculation of the direct collision of two black holes of equal masses, both of which start at rest, shows that when black holes fall against each other, they will at the beginning have their own event horizon, but after a certain time, the black holes will merge to form one big black hole. Once the black holes fuse together, the resulting behaviour of the system is very similar to the behaviour of a single distorted black hole. At the beginning, the black hole fluctuates, but as the oscillations die away, the hole settles down as a single spherical symmetric black hole. [3]

 

It is, therefore, evident that the masses of black holes may be added, which in a way indirectly can be seen from the observations of black holes with sizes of millions of solar masses. [4]


A Big Bang presumably takes place when the mass density of the black hole has reached a certain threshold value, which most likely equals the Planck density that can be written as

 

  [5]

 

where c is the speed of light, G is the gravitational constant, and  is the reduced Planck constant.

With a radius of only 6.0 x 10-16 m, the mass of a black hole with a mass density equal to the Planck density, will be equal to the mass of our own visible Universe, Ωb = 4.6 x1051 kg, where Ωb can be determined from the Big Bang theory and other observations. [6]

 

However, because it takes a very long time to accumulate so much mass in such a small volume, it will probably take hundreds of billions of years, before the last gram of mass that cause the black hole to explode in a Big Bang is added to the object. Since the regions inside the black hole can communicate with each other by means of pressure waves, so that any density variation will be smoothed out, the black hole is supposed to be homogeneous and isotropic, which will contribute to that also the subsequent radiation from the Big Bang gets these properties. When the black hole has reached the given threshold value, it may cause the black hole to trigger an explosion, where the entire mass is turned into energy according to the formula, and if we look at our own Big Bang, such an explosion will be equivalent to over one billion-billion supernovae explosions

 

Since quantum field theory determines the theoretical lowest limit of the density of matter to the Planck density, we can ascertain that the gravity of a black hole will never be able to generate a singularity, why the clocks never will come to a stand still. Since space is Euclidean, and hence coherent, it entails that a new Big Bang takes place in an existing universe. If the Planck density is the threshold value the black hole must obtain to produce a Big Bang, the Planck density may also be identical to the density of a Big Bang at the time of explosion. [5]


When a black hole explodes in a Big Bang, it does not necessarily mean that all the matter and energy in the universe is collected in the black hole. Depending on the size of the universe there may be a greater or lesser amount of mass and energy to spare, and at the explosion, some of this matter will then be covered by the radiation from the expanding Big Bang. This is possible because the local collapse in a Big Crunch and the subsequent explosion in a Big Bang, only affects the part of the universe where the event takes place. When a Big Bang occurs, it will because of the incredibly large shock wave, spread the surrounding material to such an extent, that the density of matter and energy at the centre of the Big Bang will eventually become equal to the mass density of the rest of the universe. Therefore, the location of the next Big Crunch will probably be different from the location of the last Big Bang.

Before a Big Bang can take place, a part of the universe may have completed much of its life cycle. Many of the stars in the relevant region will have exhausted their energy, and the galaxies will long ago have exhausted their gas reserves in the creation of new stars. In addition, a large part of the stars has been absorbed by black holes. The regions of the universe where the concentration of matter and energy is greatest will attract the dying galaxies and black holes, and result in a further increase in the concentration of matter and energy, and as the radiation ceases, the universe in such an area will be quiet, dark and cold. 

 

If we are to compare a Big Bang with something known, the closest we can get is probably an Ia supernova explosion. It is partly because it likewise takes place after it has reached a certain density and size, and partly because much of its energy is scattered to all sides in the existing universe. However, unlike a supernova explosion, a Big Bang generates only radiant energy.


New measurements of the cosmic background radiation (CMB) combined with measurements of the redshift of Ia supernovae and the formation and evolution of galaxy clusters, shows, that 72% of the Universe consists of so-called dark energy Λ) and 28% consists of dark matter and baryons m). Hereof the ordinary baryonic matter in the form of nebulae and stars b) only represents 4,6%, [6]  so a reasonable guess could be that a Big Bang takes place when the mass of a black hole is equivalent to the mass of the ordinary baryonic substance of our own Big Bang b).

A Gravitational Collapse may lead to  an Explosion


If the black hole rotates when a big bang takes place, the "new" energy, which is released by the explosion, will also rotate.














































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What Physical States in a Black Hole might Trigger a "Big Bang"?


When the density of matter becomes sufficiently high during the collapse of a black hole, the core of the black hole will probably consist of quark gluon plasma, which also spread into the universe right after the Big Bang. Quark-gluon plasma is a state of matter, in which the elementary particles that make up baryonic matter are freed of their strong attraction for one another under extremely high temperatures or densities. [7]

However, as the density becomes higher under the weight of the growing mass, and as the tempera-ture drops because of the Hawking radiation, it is reasonable to assume, that quark-degenerate matter, which is a colder phase of the quark gluon plasma, will be generated in the core of the black hole. Quark-degenerate matter arises when the density reaches the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit. [8]

 

Since the energy according to the first law of thermodynamics neither can be created nor destroyed, but only be changed from one form to another [9], and since the energy cannot escape the Euclidean space, the black hole will finally reach the ground state, with a density that according to the quantum theory cannot become larger than the Planck density. If the density exceeded this limit, it would 

mean that the energy no longer was quantized.

 

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest energy state, and the energy of this state is known as the system's zero-point energy. However, in contrast to the zero-point field, the zero-point energy of a black hole has a latent energy in the form of mass. According to the third law of thermodynamics, a system is in its ground state when its absolute temperature is equal to zero.

 

Many systems, such as a perfect crystal lattice have a unique ground state at this temperature. [10] If there exists more than one ground state, the quantum system is said to be degenerate. Many systems have a degenerate ground state, including the hydrogen atom. [10] However, if the black hole ends up being in the ground state, what can then trigger a Big Bang?

 

A quantum phase transition can trigger a Big Bang. A quantum phase transition is a phase transition between different quantum phases – phases of matter at absolute zero temperature. In contrast to the classical phase transition, quantum phase transitions can only occur by changing a physical parameter - such as the magnetic field, the pressure or mass - at a temperature of -273.15 °C. The phase transition describes an abrupt change of the ground state of a many-body system due to its quantum fluctuations. Such quantum phase transitions can be first-order phase transitions or continuous phase transitions, [11] where first-order phase transitions are those that involve a latent energy, such as matter. During such a transition, the system releases a fixed amount of energy.

 

Quantum phase transitions can be compared with classical phase transitions - also called thermal phase transitions. A classical phase transition describes the conditions around the critical point of a thermodynamic system. It signals a reorganization of the particles. A typical example is the phase transition from water to vapour. The classic phase transition is driven by a competition between the energy of the system and the entropy of its thermal fluctuations. However, the classical system has no entropy at absolute zero, so there can be no phase transitions.

 

In contrast, a quantum mechanical system even at absolute zero has quantum fluctuations and can, therefore, still support phase transitions. When a physical parameter changes, quantum fluctuations may drive a phase transition from one phase to another, which is verified experimentally. [12] Such a quantum phase transition can for example be the transition from mass to energy, as a Big Bang.

What Physical States in a Black Hole might Trigger a "Big Bang"?









































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The Fluctuations in CMB may reflect the Presence of the "Old" Mass

 

We now look at what happens when there occurs a Big Bang, which corresponds to our own. It all starts with that the mass contained in the black hole is converted into radiant energy and creating a shock wave similar to billions of billions of supernova explosions, and an amount of energy equivalent to all the visible matter in the universe today. This energy will create a pressure wave that will carry the surrounding black holes away, along with the old burnt-out galaxies, and other celestial bodies. In the first 0.000001 second after the Big Bang, the Universe will consist of hot quark-gluon plasma, which is a mixture of free quarks, leptons and gluons with a temperature of more than 1000 billion degrees Kelvin. However, after only a microsecond the Universe will have expanded and the temperature dropped so much, that the free quarks would be captured by gluons and assembled into protons and neutrons.[13], [14]

 

In this initial fireball, the temperature will exceed 1012 K, and most of the Big Bang will consist of radiant energy. As the expansion continues, during a continuous cooling, the role of radiation will decrease, while other physical processes will dominate. After 10-5 seconds, the quarks may form pro-tons and neutrons, and after about three minutes, the temperature will fall to around 109 K. This will allow for the formation of basic atomic nuclei such as deuterons (each of which consists of a proton and a neutron) and helium nuclei. This formation is not possible at higher temperatures, because the nuclei would immediately have been disintegrated by high-energy photons. During the further expansion, the time between the nuclear collisions will rise, and the ratio between deuterons and helium nuclei will stabilize. [15]

 

Already after the first microsecond, the Big Bang consisted of free quarks, leptons and gluons, and because quarks and some of the leptons possess mass, [16] they were attracted by the black holes and other massive objects from the "old" Universe. However, because of the intense radiation pressure, which was located between the old celestial bodies, any inhomogeneities were smoothed out in the radiation from the Big Bang.  As the temperature fell, the quarks combined into baryons as hydrogen and helium nuclei, and at about 3000 Kelvin, the temperature was so low, that the electrons could be captured by the atomic nuclei, and the first atoms could form.

 

The photons were no longer scattered by collisions with the free electrons in the plasma, so for the first time, the radiation moved unhindered through space and the background radiation that we see today was frozen at that time. [15], [17] It is only after this recombination, about 280,000 years after Big Bang, [17] that the black holes and barren objects really can make their marks on the background radiation. After the recombination will the black holes and barren objects, through the attraction of mass and energy from the Big Bang, create lasting fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation. [17], [18] These fluctuations must therefore reflect the influence of the "old" Universe on the background radiation in the immediate post recombination era.

The Fluctuations in CMB may reflect the Presence of the "Old" Mass

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The "Old" Mass is reflected in the Network Structure of the Universe

Based on observations of the redshift there are found gigantic structures in the part of the Universe that includes the Big Bang, where galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed in network-like structures extending over several hundred million light-years. There is, among other things, found a "Great Wall" which is a sheet of galaxies which are more than 500 million light years long and 200 million light years wide, but only 15 million light-years thick; and one of the largest gaps there is observed, has a diameter of about 230 million light-years. [19]

 

The explanation is, that when the gases - in the form of hydrogen and helium from the Big Bang - expand, the old objects attract and engulf the portion of the gas which is nearest, while the rest of the gas that also have a direction towards the objects will be pushed further along. The part of the gas that is pressed past the objects will thus have a greater density than the original gas, and thus form accumulation tracks as it passes the old objects.

 

If we consider our part of the Universe, blacks holes and other ancient objects have (already from the the start of the recombination) drawn accumulation tracks in the gas of hydrogen and helium that originated from the Big Bang.

        Fig. The network structure in our part of the Universe. [20]

The tracks of gas densities will form strings of pearls of accumulation points, suitable for the formation of stars. Besides the new accumulation tracks, there will also exist a network structure from the previous series of Big Bangs that have occurred in the course of time.

       Fig. The Crab Nebula with accumulation tracks in the gas 
             from the supernova explosion.
[21]

Note the similarity between the accumulation tracks in the crab nebula and the accumulation tracks in our part of the Universe. [20]

The "Old" Mass is reflected in the Network Structure of the Universe




















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The "Old" Mass acts as Seeds for New Celestial Bodies

 

Since a Big Bang takes place in an existing universe, the black holes and other objects from the time before a Big Bang, which is located within the area of a Big Bang, act as seeds for the creation of new stars, galaxies, pulsars and quasars. [22]  The gravitational fields of the black holes and the old burnt-out galaxy structures from the "old" universe, which has survived the radiation pressure can now deflect and capture the newly formed hydrogen and helium, which will seek toward the mass centers, under the formation of the first luminous objects, which, therefore, evolve explosively. So the first stars form already 200 million years after the Big Bang, [22], [23] and there is observed gamma ray bursts as fra away as 12.2 billion light years! [23]

The "Old" Mass acts as Seeds for New Celestial Bodies

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The "Old" Mass absorbed by a Big Bang acts as Dark Matter

 

The black holes and other old remnants that are absorbed by a Big Bang will not only act as catalysts for the formation of new celestial objects. The old matter from before a Big Bang will also act as so-called dark matter in that part of the universe there is covered by a Big Bang. This is because the old matter from before a Big Bang, has expended all its energy, so it despite its ubiquity is not even visible, but only indirectly making itself known by acting as accumulation points for new stars and galaxies. That is why the old mass constitutes the centers of these new luminous objects.

 

At the explosion, all the old objects in the vicinity of the big bang will get their proportional share of the new hydrogen and helium, while the rest of the gas will be distributed between the celestial bodies as giant gas clouds. These gas clouds will act as dark matter, until they in one way or another take part in the formation of luminous objects.

 

Old objects of a certain size will be able to gather enough gas to launch a nuclear reaction almost right from the start of a big bang, and depending on the objects, the results will be quite different. The black holes will probably generate quasars and pulsars, the old burnt out galaxies will create giant new galaxies while other old objects will form bright new stars. However, as time pass by, only the cores of the big galaxies that still have stocks of hydrogen and helium will remain luminous, while the surrounding part of the galaxy will act as dark matter. Likewise, many of the first stars will function as dark matter, as they have long since exhausted their fuel.

The "Old" Mass absorbed by a Big Bang acts as Dark Matters

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The Mass Located outside of a Big Bang acts as Dark Energy

 

As a universe is the source of and contains a Big Bang, it can be seen, that the matter of the universe that lies within the radius of a Big Bang, but do not originate from the Big Bang, make up the dark matter; while the matter, which lies outside the radius of the Big Bang, but still belongs to the universe, must constitute the so-called dark energy.

We can divide our own Universe into two areas. The area lying within the radius of our Big Bang corresponds roughly to the area we can see today. This is not surprising, since it is precisely the area of the Universe, which has been supplied with new energy in the form of hydrogen and helium, and, therefore, light up.

 

The mass of dark matter and baryons within the radius of our Big Bang constitute about three-tenths of the total substance m ~ 0.3). [5] The area that lies outside our Big Bang, but belongs to our closed Universe, we do not know the size of, but it is this area, that is the cause of the introduction of the cosmological constant Λ ~ 0,7) and known as dark energy. [5]

 

The density parameter is the ratio between the total density ε(t) and the critical density εC, where the critical density is the density for which the Big Bang is completely flat. The density parameter is composed of the density parameter for radiation Ωr, the density parameter for mass Ωm, and the density parameter for the so-called dark energy ΩΛ. Since the density parameter for radiation is far below one percent, we will allow ourselves to ignore it. At present, the density parameter for mass Ωm constitutes around 28%, of which ordinary baryonic matter only constitutes 4.6%, while dark matter constitutes 23%. The rest of the Universe currently consists of 72% dark energy, ΩΛ.

 

The Big Bang is now remarkably close to having a flat geometry (Ω = Ωr + Ωm + ΩΛ = 1.02 ± 0.02), reflecting that the density parameter Ω(t) is very close to 1. [5], [24] The cause for this flat geometry is precisely that the Big Bang takes place in an existing Universe with a surrounding attractive mass, which will always define the cosmological constant such as the density parameter is equal to 1.

 

If the Big Bang shall expand in our Universe, the visible region that corresponds to our Big Bang must not contain such a vast mass that the area constitutes a black hole, so not even light can escape. The area we can see, can be represented by a sphere of radius 13.7 x 109 light-years with a visible mass of approximately Mb = 4.6 x1051 kg, that according to the observations corresponds to 4.6% of the total mass. [6] The visible mass (baryons) and the dark matter m) that lie within the radius of the Big Bang constitute altogether 28% of the total mass, and must then have a mass equal to Mm = 2.8 x 1052 kg. [5] 

 

If the escape velocity from this mass is greater than the velocity of light, where c = 3 x 108 m/s, the visible area is closed, otherwise it is flat or open. We set the gravitational constant G = 6.67 × 10-11 m3 kg-1 s-2 and the radius of the Big Bang equal to r, where
 

r = (13.7 x 109 ly) x (the distance light travel in one year, 9.461 x 1015 m/ly).


We then find that the escape velocity equals

 

vescape = (2GM0 / r)1/2  »  1.7 x 10 8 m/s  <  2.998 × 10 8 m/s  = c,

 

from which it is seen, that the region covered by the Big Bang is open. This means that there is nothing to prevent the Big Bang from expanding and merging with the surrounding Universe.

 

The expansion of the Big Bang decreases not as fast as one might expect from the mutual gravitation, the observed matter density should entail. [25] This is because the expansion of the Big Bang takes place in an existing universe, which is in possession of a mass that is surrounding the Big Bang. The surrounding mass is so vast, that it eventually will be able to compensate for the mutual attraction of the matter that lies within the radius of the Big Bang.

 

When the mass of the black hole is converted into pure energy, the surrounding substance will because of the radiation pressure, get a kinetic energy, which in the first time after Big Bang by far will be the predominant cause of the expansion. Only later, when the kinetic energy is about to die down because of the mutual attraction of the matter, the pull from the surrounding Universe will really be felt.

 

Fig. Big Bang candidate. By definition, the gravitational potential equals zero, V = 0, 
      at infinity. [26]

The greater part of the substance, in the area where the Big Crunch took place, must have merged with the giant black hole, while the rest of the surrounding mass that later constitutes the dark matter and dark energy, either did not arrive within the occurrence of Big Bang, or moved in other directions because of other gravitational forces.

 

A Big Bang can be compared with an Ia supernova explosion where the explosion takes place just when the correct mass density - and thus mass - is present. [27] Furthermore, the supernova explodes in an existing universe, whereby the potential well that the supernova forms eventually will be smoothed out. The same mechanism occurs when there happens a Big Bang, except that a Big Bang only produces radiant energy, while a supernova also creates an object.

 

The matter and radiation from a Big Bang that is attracted by and merged with the objects from the “old” universe will give the old matter an impulse in the same direction that the new substance possesses. As, the quantity of matter and energy that is attracted by and merged with the old objects, depend on the masses of the old objects; these old objects will receive a uniform contribution to their velocity away from the center of the Big Bang. This contribution will be largest in the time just after Big Bang. [26]

The Mass Located outside of a Big Bang acts as Dark Energy




















































































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The Theory Provides an Explanation of What Was Before Big Bang


The theory establish that there must occur a Big Bang now and then, as the Universe otherwise would have been reduced to a giant black hole infinitely long time ago. Since the candidate for a Big Bang is either a barren object or a black hole, and as only the black holes are able to provide the required energy, a Big Bang necessarily stems from the explosion of a black hole. The theory thus provides an explanation of what was before a Big Bang, and where the energy came from to perform a Big Bang.

Since it from our perspective looks like we are almost in the midst of the Universe, it may be that big bang's takes place more often than we expect.

The Theory Provides an Explanation of What Was Before Big Bang

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The Theory Provides an Explanation of Why Our Big Bang is Flat


The Big Bang is now remarkably close to having a flat geometry (Ω = Ωr + Ωm + ΩΛ = 1.02 ± 0.02). This is seen from the density parameter Ω(t) that today is very close to one. The density parameter is the ratio between the total density ε(t) and the critical density εCwhich is the density at which the Big Bang is completely flat. [5]


According to the theory, the surrounding Universe is the source of and contains the Big Bang. Since we do not know the distribution of the matter and energy beyond the boundary of our own Big Bang, we cannot know for sure how much of the Universe there is involved in the Big Bang.

We can however get an idea of the size of the Universe by looking at how much it pulls in our Big Bang, since the cosmological constant Λ is an expression of the gravitational pull that the surrounding matter and energy exerts on the substance inside the area of the Big Bang. Since the cosmological constant always mirrors the drag from the surrounding Universe, our Big Bang will always look flat. Thereby the theory solves the flatness problem.

The Theory Provides an Explanation of Why Our Big Bang is Flat

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The Theory Fits with the Latest Data from WMAP

 

The theory also fits with the latest data from WMAP. These data indicate, that the actual part of the Universe covered by Big Bang becomes colder and darker, and that the baryonic matter now represents 4.6% and the dark matter 23% of this part of the Universe, while the dark energy represents 72%. However, when the Big Bang was only 280,000 years old, the baryons constituted whole 12% of the matter in the part covered by the Big Bang, the dark matter 63%, and the radiation in the form of photons 15% and neutrinos 10%, while the dark energy was negligible. [28]

 

The composition of matter and energy mentioned above can be explained by the expansion, as the relative expansion is unusually large in the first time after Big Bang, and, therefore, completely overshadow the gravitational pull from the surrounding mass. This means that the dark energy will be negligible at that time.

In the time after the recombination, Big Bang contributes with baryonic matter in the form of hydrogen and helium, and radiant energy in the form of photons and neutrinos. In addition, the "old" Universe contributes with the dark matter that was situated near the black hole before the explosion. It is, therefore, not unlikely that these old objects constituted 63% of the substance in the area covered by the 280,000 year old Big Bang.

The Theory Fits with the Latest Data from WMAP

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The Theory Solves the Horizon Problem

 

The horizon problem is a problem related to the Big Bang standard model. The horizon problem emphasizes that the different areas of our part of the Universe could not have been in contact with each other since the Big Bang. This is due to the large distances between the diametrically opposite ends of the Big Bang, and because the exchange of information at most can be done at the velocity of light. There is, therefore, according to the Big Bang standard model no explanation of why the background radiation in various areas of our part of the Universe has exactly the same temperature.


      Fig. Horizon problem.

According to this theory, the prerequisites for that a black hole explodes in a Big Bang are that the substance everywhere has achieved the Planck density. The expanding Big Bang must therefore be homogeneous and isotropic from the start. Moreover, the radiation pressure will have smoothed out any density variations in the cosmic background radiation, up to the time of recombination. Since, it is this background radiation, that underlies the temperature measurements, and as the black holes and barren objects first have been able to make their influence felt after the recombination, the old objects have only had a tiny influence on the microwave background radiation.

The Theory Solves the Horizon Problem

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The Theory Solves the Smoothness Problem

 

The smoothness problem is a problem that relates to the Big Bang standard model. The problem is that despite the temperature of the cosmological background radiation is almost constant; the structure of our part of the Universe is very uneven. These structural differences existed already 200 million years after the Big Bang, when the first stars were formed. [22], [23]

 

Based on angular positions and redshift surveys of sections of the sky, which are used to calculate the distance of astronomical objects from the Earth, there are found gigantic structures anywhere in our part of the universe, in which galaxies and clusters of galaxies are distributed in network-like structures extending over several hundred million light years. [19]

 

The question is how our part of the Universe can have a uniform background radiation, and at the same time contain large concentrations of matter, where clusters of galaxies and giant voids form a network structure in our part of the Universe.

 

The present theory predicts both a uniform and smooth distribution of the background radiation and the network-like structure of the Universe. The previous sections show that the Big Bang expanded from a tiny homogeneous and isotropic black hole. Since the radiation pressure up to the time of the recombination has smoothed any density variation, the black holes and barren objects from the "old" universe, which is the basis for the evolution of the stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters and network structures in the visible Universe, has only had a very limited influence on the background radiation.

The Theory Solves the Smoothness Problem

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The Theory Solves the problem of the Mass Distribution in Galaxies

Finally, the theory solves the problem of the mass distribution in galaxies. The missing dark matter consists of black holes and barren objects, which stems from the "old" universe. The structure of these objects will most likely be giant galaxies that have grown larger, while they have exhausted their energy up to the time for a Big Bang. The presence of such galaxies, composed entirely of black holes and barren objects, may explain the missing dark matter in the galaxies. When a burnt-out galaxy attracts hydrogen and helium from a Big Bang, the gasses will seek towards the centre of mass of the galaxy. This will eventually result in a distribution where the largest energy reserves are located in the galactic centre. As the galaxy gets older, the peripheral regions of the galaxy will, therefore, burn out first, leaving a halo of dark matter around the galaxy.

The Theory Solves the Problem of the Mass Distribution in Galaxies

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References

 

 1. P. Anninos, D. Hobill, E. Seidel, L. Smarr, W-M. Suen: "The Collision of Two Black Holes", National
    Center for Supercomputing Applications, Beckman Institute; Department of Physics and
    Astronomy, University of Calgary; McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of
    Physics, Washington University.

 

 2. R. A. Matzner, H. E. Seidel, S. L. Shapiro, L. Smarr, W-M. Suen, S. A. Teukolsky, J. Winicour:
    "Geometry of a Black Hole Collision", Science 10 November 1995: Vol. 270. no. 5238.

 

 3. M. Milosavljevic, E. S. Phinney: "The Afterglow of Massive Black Hole Coalescence", Theoretical
     Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 2008.

 

 4. C. W. Misner, K. S. Thorne, J. A. Wheeler: "Gravitation", University of Maryland; California
     Institute of Technology; Universiy of Texas, Austin; Princeton University, W. H. Freeman,
     New York, 1973.

 

 5. B. Ryden: "Introduction to Cosmology", Addison Wesley, 2003.

 

 6. G. F. Hinshaw: "WMAP- Content of the Universe" NASA, National Aeronautics and Space
     Administration, 2008.

 

 7. W.A.Zajc: "The fluid nature of quark-gluon plasma", Nuclear Physics, 2008.

 

 8. J.R. Oppenheimer and G.M. Volkoff: "On Massive Neutron Cores". Physical Review 55 (4):
     pages 374–381, 1939.

 

 9. J. R. Mayer, J. P. Joule, S. Carnot: "The Discovery of the Law of Conservation of Energy", Isis,
     vol. 13, No. 1, Sep., 1929.

 

10. Richard Feynman, Robert Leighton, Matthew Sands: "The Feynman Lectures on Physics", 
     vol 3, 1965.

 

11. Sachdev, Subir: "Quantum Phase Transitions", Cambridge University Press, 2000.

 

12. M. Greiner, O. Mandel, T. Esslinger, T. Hänsch, I. Bloch: "Quantum phase transition from a
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