Home | Blog | Books | Links                                                                           Language: Danish Comments: post@finaltheories.com If you want to promote the theory about "The Structure and Composition of the Cosmos", so please tell others about it - or better still, make a link to this site. Deduction of the Theory | Mass and Energy | Evaluation of the Theory | Test of the Theory | Proof: Special Relativity is Wrong Deduction of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory When we regard the Universe, we tend to look at the Universe from our own limited perspective. However, the age of our Universe at 13.8 billion years, is nothing compared to an infinite time scale, and the visible extent of the Universe, which is equal to the current horizon distance dhor(t0) ≈ 14.3 Gpc or 4.4 x 1026 m, is nothing compared to infinity. When we present a theory of the distribution of energy in the Cosmos, it is essential, that we start with the observations that are made in our own Universe. Besides, we must begin with the physical laws that have proved viable when tested in relation to the world that surrounds us. In the following derivation of the distribution of energy in the space, we assume that the Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time, that the energy is constant, that the space is Euclidean and hence perfectly flat, and that the mass and energy are quantized - and therefore cannot end up as a singularity. The gravitational forces will then produce a mass distribution in the infinite flat space, where the mass and energy will accumulate into larger and denser structures, until there arise a state of equilibrium in the Euclidean space.   As time pass by, the larger and denser structures accumulate into black holes and closed universes, and since the quantum theory does not permit singularities, even the closed universes will, as the energy is depleted, end up as giant black holes. However, since we exist there must be a way out, - there must be a way in which a black hole can be converted into energy. That is to say, a black hole must be able to create an explosion, where E = mc2.   We now present a more formal deduction of the outlined course of events from the following assumptions:                    1) The law of conservation of energy.  2) The space is Euclidean. 3) No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum.  4) Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field. 5) The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time.   6) We exist. Deduction of the Euclidean Cosmos Theory 1) The law of conservation of energy.  2) The space is Euclidean. 3) No interactions travel faster than the     velocity of light in vacuum. 4) Mass and energy are deflected in a     gravitational field. 5) The Cosmos has existed for an     infinitely long time. 6) We exist. Assumptions for the Determination of the Energy Distribution   Ad 1) The law of conservation of energy The first assumption is simply the first law of thermodynamics, or the law of conservation of energy, that states that: energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only be changed from one form to another. In this connection it is essential to mention, that since all matter and energy are quantized, with the minimum length called the Planck length, the existence of a singularity is at variance with the quantum field theory. Because when the dimensions of the singularity approach zero, the dimensions become less than the Planck length, which means that the singularity cannot contain as much as a single quantum of energy. Ad 2) The space is Euclidean As it can be established that time is absolute and universal, the time axis is just as rigid as the three space axes (x, y, z), so the combined space-time is best interpreted as an Euclidean space, with three space axes and one time axis. Ad 3) No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum According to the quantum field theory it applies that interactions cannot propagate at a velocity exceeding the velocity of light in vacuum.    The reason why, the velocity of light is constant and independent of the velocity of the object emitting the light, is, that light propagates in the zero-point field, which because of its electromagnetic properties cause the velocity of light to become equal to . where ε0 is the electric constant and μ0 is the magnetic constant. However, that the velocity of light is constant does not mean that light cannot be deflected in a gravitational field, which can be easily inferred from Huygens' principle. This principle says that any point on a wave front of light may be regarded as the source of secondary waves, and the wave front will propagate as the envelope surface of these secondary waves.   Ad 4) Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field Since mass and energy are equivalent entities, where E = mc2, and since we from Newton's law of universal gravitation know that the mass m is deflected in a gravitational field, it must also be true for the energy E. If we look at a closed universe, it will thus not be the space that bends, but the trajectories of mass and energy that are deflected in the gravitational field. This is particularly true for light. Ad 5) The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time The fifth condition is a result of the Euclidean geometry of space and the law of conservation of energy. Ad 6) We exist The assumption that we exist ensures that there exist at least one universe. Assumptions for the determination of the energy distribution To the Top Derivation of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos   The theory is a logical deduction of the composition of the Cosmos based on the given assumptions.   1. Assumption: The law of conservation of energy The energy is constant.  => The total amount of matter and energy is final.   Comment: Since energy can neither be created nor destroyed, according to the first assumption, the total amount of energy in the Cosmos is constant. If the total amount of energy is constant, the amount of matter and energy must have a maximum, why the quantity of matter and energy is final.    2. Assumption: The space is Euclidean The total amount of matter and energy is final. The space is Euclidean. => The final amount of matter and energy can be enclosed by a hypothetical spherical shell in the Euclidean space.   Comment: If the space is Euclidean, there exists only one connected space in which the final amount of matter and energy must necessarily be. As the quantity of matter and energy is final, it must have a final extension. It means that the volume of energy and matter can be enclosed within an outer limit, so we can place a hypothetical spherical shell around the final amount of matter and energy.     3. Assumption: No interactions travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum The final amount of matter and energy in the Euclidean space can be enclosed by a hypothetical spherical shell. No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum. => The spherical shell that is required to enclose the final amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum in the Euclidean space. 4. Assumption: Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field Since mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field, there are two possibilities, either a) the final amount of mass and energy cannot escape the gravitational field, that is to say, "the universe is closed", or b) the final amount of mass and energy can escape the gravitational field, by which "the universe is open or flat". 4a. The spherical shell that is required to enclose the final amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum in the Euclidean space. The universe is closed. => The final amount of matter and energy can be regarded as one closed universe, which is situated in the Euclidean space.   Comment: If the density of matter and energy is sufficient to hold on to matter and radiation, a constant spherical shell will be able to enclose the total amount of matter and energy. This means that the Euclidean space contains one closed universe. 4b. The spherical shell that is required to enclose the final amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum in the Euclidean space. The universe is open or flat. => The spherical shell that is required to enclose the final amount of matter and energy must grow with a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light in vacuum in the Euclidean space. Comment: If the density of matter and energy is not sufficient to hold on to matter and energy, the radius of the spherical shell must grow with a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light, so as to constantly encircle the total, constant amount of matter and energy in the Euclidean space.   5. Assumption: The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time The spherical shell that is required to enclose the final amount of matter and energy must grow with a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light in vacuum in the Euclidean space. The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time. => The density of matter and energy in the Euclidean space must approach zero with the exception of a final number of accumulation points around which matter and energy are collected. Comment: It must be true that a point can only be an accumulation point when the matter and energy around the point of accumulation can create a gravitational force that is strong enough to hold on to matter and energy. So, when the density of matter and energy in the Euclidean space gather around an accumulation point, it must be either a barren object, a black hole, or a closed universe, since any form of energy otherwise would have radiated away long ago. So the conclusion can be reformulated as: The density of matter and energy in the Euclidean space must approach zero with the exception of a final number of barren objects, black holes, and closed universes. 6. Assumption: We exist The density of matter and energy in the Euclidean space must approach zero with the exception of a final number of barren objects, black holes, and closed universes. We exist. => In the Euclidean space there exist a final number of closed universes, black holes, and barren objects, and at least one closed universe. Fig. The composition of the Cosmos. Since the number of objects is final, they can be enclosed by a hypothetical spherical shell. Within the hypothetical spherical shell, an individual universe, black hole, or barren object may at some time, either be (or get) in possession of the escape velocity relative to the other objects, whereby the universe, black hole, or barren object will be thrown away from the other objects and live its own life. For the universes, black holes, and barren objects, whose velocities never reach the escape velocity, it must be true, that they because of the gravitational forces between them, will gather in one or more bounded areas. As the Cosmos has existed infinitely long, the bounded areas must find themselves in a stable, dynamic equilibrium.  Derivation of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos To the Top The Conclusion of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos We can finally conclude, that the Cosmos consists of an infinite Euclidean space, in which there are a final number of closed universes, and possibly black holes and barren objects - and at least one closed universe. If there are more closed universes, black holes and barren objects, they will either move away from each other, with velocities that for each of them are larger than the escape velocity from the overall system, or find themselves in a kind of stable, dynamic equilibrium, so it may happen that universes collide. Moreover, the black holes must necessarily create an explosion once in a while, that is, each time the prerequisites for such an explosion are met, since each universe otherwise ultimately will consist of a black hole.   Comment: In honor of those who can imagine an infinite and (simultaneously) constant amount of energy we will let the amount of mass and energy approach infinity. According to the theory, this can end in two scenarios. If the density of matter and energy is relatively small, the Cosmos will consist of an infinite vacuum, in which there are an infinite number of closed universes and barren objects, which all are in a kind of stable, dynamic equilibrium, so it may happen that universes collide. Moreover, the black holes must necessarily create an explosion once in a while, that is, each time the prerequisites for such an explosion are met, since each universe otherwise ultimately will consist of a black hole. However, the Universe cannot consist of a single coherent infinite Universe, since it according to Olbers' paradox would then have suffered the heath death infinitely long time ago. Conclusion of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos The Energy Distribution in a Closed Universe   We will now see what happens in each of the closed universes, and since our own Universe is the only universe we know of, we will use it as a starting point, and assume that the conclusions we draw, will apply to all the universes. From the observations of our Universe, we can see that matter and energy accumulate into galaxies, which again collect in super clusters, large quasar groups, galaxy filaments, galaxy walls, and galaxy sheets. If we assume that the universes in general have a content of hydrogen and helium similar to our own, which contains about 75% hydrogen and 8% helium of the total baryonic mass, the galaxies will go through a series of phases, where the hydrogen and helium gather into nebulae that again become stars, and then giants, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, and black holes. However, if the black holes were not able to spread their content of matter and energy into the surroundings, all the galaxies would at last end up as black holes, which again would gravitate toward the center of mass of the closed universe, to create one large black hole. This is possible, because, even if there were only a few black holes left, which circulated around each other in a seemingly stable manner, they would at last merge into one single black hole, due to the loss of energy in form of gravitational waves, which are equivalent to the properties of the electromagnetic waves in an electromagnetic field. If a huge black hole was the final stage of each of the universes, we would not be here. So, there must be a process which is able to generate an explosion of a black hole. The size of an explosion of a black hole determines to a large extend the structure of a universe. If the size of the explosion is similar to a big bang, the universe would expand outwards from the explosion of the black hole, which would deliver all the new matter and energy to the further development of the universe. On the other hand, if the explosions of the black holes are relatively small, the explosions could take place anywhere in the universe, where the black holes met the requirements for an explosion - and the black holes could then be the centers of the galaxies, partly because of their gravitational field, and partly because of their supply of new energy to the surrounding galaxy. Since the size of an explosion of a black hole is determined by the process that generates the explosion, we need to look at the possible energy sources for such an explosion. As it has been established that black holes mostly consist of neutrons, the fission of neutrons into quarks, could be an obvious energy source for such an explosion; and since it has been shown, that quarks and gluons cannot be separated from their parent hadrons without producing new hadrons, hadrons such as protons and neutrons are the smallest free particles that can exist under normal conditions. So, the only possible energy source must be the fission of neutrons. As it also has been shown that free quarks only can exist under extreme high pressure and temperature, the condition for an explosion of a black hole, where the neutrons split into free quarks during the release of their binding energy, is, that the interior of a black hole fulfills these conditions. It means that the black hole must have a "neutron star" at its center and simultaneously be situated where it is able to accumulate matter, until the required pressure and temperature are obtained for the completion of the explosion. Such large active black holes are normally placed at the center of the galaxies, where they are able to accumulate matter from the surrounding galaxy, and are often called Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Fig. Our closed Universe. An other essential discovery, which can tell us about the development of our universe, is the verification of the existence of the plasma red-shift of light by the intergalactic plasma, which entails that the cosmological red-shift is not a result of an expansion of our Universe. It means that the Universe is static, to that extent, that the expansion that arises from the different explosions are in equilibrium with the contraction that originates from the gravitational force. That the Universe is static can also be seen from the lack of a physical process, which is able to generate a Big Bang. The red-shift occurs as a result of the intergalactic plasma, which is a hot ionized gas, consisting of positive ions and free electrons, with a more or less neutral electric charge. The separation of ions and electrons produces an electric field, which in turn produces electric currents and magnetic fields. When the electromagnetic radiation traverses the plasma, the radiation becomes red-shifted, as the photons lose energy to the plasma, while the plasma is heated. This is particularly clear in connection with the heating of the solar corona, the corona of the galaxies, and the intergalactic plasma. The Energy Distribution in a Universe In each of the closed universes, the influence of gravity means that most of the mass ends up as galaxies. As the energy is constant, there is a life-cycle of energy in each of the universes, where the black holes at the center of the galaxies create the largest regenerative processes, such as quasars, pulsars, and AGNs, where a regenerative process is defined as a process that transforms heavy elements into lighter ones. Fig. The life-cycle of the energy in a universe. The regenerative processes deliver energy to the life-cycle of mass and radiation in the universe, where the new energy often ends up as nebulae from which new stars are born, or as the cosmic microwave background. The gas nebulae are the first step on the road, of stars, giants, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, and black holes, where the energy once again ends up at the center of the galaxy. As the cosmic microwave background reflects the regenerative processes, it reflects in this way the structure of the universe with the great walls and large voids. As a result of the incessant regenerative processes, the density of the universes are very sparse, which also can be seen from the density of our own Universe. If the density distribution is known, it will be possible to make an estimation of the size of a closed universes, which are practically the same for all the universes that has reached their maximum size. Since the universes are static, their size can be derived from the condition that they are closed, which means that not even light is able to leave the universes. The Generation of an Explosion Inside a Black Hole There is nothing to prevent that larger and larger black holes merge until they reach the upper limit for an explosion. Larry Smarr calculated the first numerical solution of a direct collision between two black holes of equal masses in 1979,  - while Matzner and associates in 1995 determined the details for the merger.  The calculation of the direct collision of two black holes of equal masses, both of which start at rest, shows that when black holes fall against each other, they will merge to form one big black hole. At the beginning, the black hole fluctuates, but as the oscillations die away, the hole settles down as a single spherical symmetric black hole.    It is, therefore, evident that the masses of black holes may be added, which in a way indirectly can be seen from the observations of black holes with sizes of millions of solar masses. , ,  The explosion inside a black hole takes place when the mass density at the center of a black hole has passed the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, which is the minimum threshold value. Since the regions inside a black hole can communicate with each other by means of pressure waves, so that any density variation will be smoothed out, a black hole is supposed to be homogeneous and isotropic. When a black hole parses the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit, it may cause the black hole to trigger an explosion, where a proportional large part of the mass is turned into energy according to the formula, E = mc2. Such a black hole at the center of a galaxy is called an Active Galactic Nucleus, AGN.. Such a black hole at the center of a galaxy is called an Active Galactic Nucleus, AGN. Since the larger galaxies attract more of the intergalactic matter and radiation, the larger galaxies grows faster than the smaller ones, and they may even grow by merger with other galaxies. In the center of each of the currently known galaxies, there have been found massive black holes, and the size of the galaxies gives an indication of the size of the black hole at the center of the galaxies, and the extent to which it is able to create a regenerative process. It has been found that there is the following relation between the mass of a central black hole, Mbh, and the stellar mass of the surrounding bulge, Mbulge:      Mbh ~ 1.2 x Mbulge. From this relation it can be seen that the size of a black hole is proportional to the size of the galaxy. On the other hand, the larger the galaxies become, the more frequent and powerful are the eruptions, so the more matter and energy they will scatter. It has been found, that the dispersion of energy, E, from a galaxy grows with a larger factor than the total mass, M, of a galaxy, so:      E ~ M3/2, which entails that there is an upper limit to the size of a galaxy. So if two galaxies collide they will  eventually get rid of the superfluous energy by enhancing the distribution of energy into the intergalactic space. The Energy Distribution in a Closed Universe References   1. J. R. Mayer, J. P. Joule, S. Carnot: "The Discovery of the Law of Conservation of Energy." Isis,     Vol. 13, No. 1, Sep., 1929.   2. Phillippe H. Eberhard and Ronald R. Ross: "Quantum Field Theory Cannot Provide Faster-than-light     Communication." Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, California     94720.   3. V. Szebehely, C. F. Peters: "Complete Solution of a General Problem of Three Bodies." Yale     University Observatory, New Haven, Connecticut, 1967. 4. D. Palmer: "Hydrogen in the Universe." NASA, Feb., 2008. 5. Eric J. Simon, Jean L. Dickey, Kelly A. Hogan, Jane B. Reece: "Campbell Biology: Concepts &    Connections." Pearson, ISBN-13: 9780134296012, 2018. 6. O. Heaviside: "Electromagnetic Theory." Vol. 1, p. 455-466, Apendix B, 1893. 7. Henri Poincaré: "Sur la dynamique de l' électron." Institut de France, Académie des sciences,     p. 1504-1508, 1905.  8. P. Anninos, D. Hobill, E. Seidel, L. Smarr, W-M. Suen: "The Collision of Two Black Holes." National    Center for Supercomputing Applications, Beckman Institute; Department of Physics and Astronomy,    University of Calgary; McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Department of Physics,    Washington University. 9. R. A. Matzner, H. E. Seidel, S. L. Shapiro, L. Smarr, W-M. Suen, S. A. Teukolsky, J. Winicour:     "Geometry of a Black Hole Collision." Science 10 November 1995: Vol. 270. no. 5238. 10. M. Milosavljevic, E. S. Phinney: "The Afterglow of Massive Black Hole Coalescence."      Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 2008. 11. G. Ghisellini, L. Foschini, M. Volonteri, G. Ghirlanda, F. Haardt, D. Burlon, F. Tavecchio, et al.:      "The blazar S5 0014+813: a real or apparent monster?" Monthly Notices of the Royal       Astronomical Society: Letters, v2. 399: L24, arXiv:0906.0575, 2009. 12. Bryan Gaensler. Extreme Cosmos: "A Guided Tour of the Fastest, Brightest, Hottest, Heaviest,      Oldest, and Most Amazing Aspects of Our Universe." ISBN 978-1-101-58701-0, 2014. 13. Wenwen Zuo, Xue-Bing Wu, Xiaohui Fan, Richard Green, Ran Wang, Fuyan Bian: "Black Hole Mass      Estimates and Rapid Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Luminous z ~ 3.5 Quasars." The      Astrophysical Journal. 799 (2): 189, arXiv:1412.2438, 2014. 14. Nadine Haering, Hans-Walter Rix: "On the Black Hole Mass - Bulge Mass Relation."      Astrophys.J.604:L89-L92,2004, doi:10.1086/383567, arXiv:astro-ph/0402376, Feb 2004. 15. J. S. Kaastra and H. G. van Bueren. "Mass-to-energy Relations for Galaxies and Clusters of      Galaxies. Sterrekundig Instituut, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Bibcode: 1981A&A....99....7K, Mar      1981. References To the Top                                                              © J. Balslev 2010