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Deduction of the Theory | Mass and Energy | Evaluation of the Theory | Test of the Theory

| Proof: Special Relativity is Wrong

Deduction of the Euclidean Cosmos

When we regard the universe, we tend to look at the universe from our own limited perspective. However, the age of our Universe at 13.7 billion years, is nothing compared to an infinite time scale, and the visible extent of the universe, which is equal to the current horizon distance dhor(t0) ≈ 14,000 MPC, is nothing compared to infinity.

When we present a theory of
the distribution of energy in the Cosmos, it is essential, that we start with the observations that are made in our part of the Universe of especially Big Bang. Besides, we must begin with the physical laws that have proved viable when tested in relation to the world that surrounds us.

In the following deduction of the distribution of energy in the space, we assume that the Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time, that the energy is constant, that space is Euclidean and hence perfectly flat, and that the mass and energy are quantized - and, therefore, cannot end up as a singularity. The gravitational forces will then produce a mass distribution in the infinite flat space, where the mass and energy must be assembled into larger and denser structures, until there arise a state of equilibrium in the Euclidean space.

 

As time pass by, the larger and denser units will accumulate into black holes and closed universes, and since the quantum theory does not permit singularities, even the closed universes will, as the energy is depleted, end as giant black holes. However, since we exist there must be a way out, - there must be a way in which a black hole can be converted into pure energy. That is to say, a black hole must be able to explode in a Big Bang, where .

 

We now present a more formal deduction of the outlined course of events from the following assumptions:

                  

1) The law of conservation of energy. [1]


2) The space is Euclidean.

3) No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum.

4) Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field.

5) The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time.
 

6) We exist.

7) Quantum theory does not allow singularities.

 

Deduction of the Euclidean Cosmos

1) The law of conservation of energy. [1]

2) The space is Euclidean.

3)
No interactions travel faster than the
    velocity of light in vacuum.


4) Mass and energy are deflected in a
    gravitational field.


5) The
Cosmos has existed for an
    infinitely long time.

6) We exist.

7) Quantum theory does not allow
    singularities.















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Assumptions for the Determination of the Energy Distribution

 

Ad 1) The law of conservation of energy

The first assumption is simply the first law of thermodynamics, or the law of conservation of energy, that states that: energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but only be changed from one form to another. [1] It is one of the most fundamental laws of physics and has been a major reason for the discovery of a corresponding anti-particle for every elementary particle we know of.

 

Ad 2) The space is Euclidean

As it can be established (see the thesis "The Structure and Composition of Cosmos") that time is absolute and universal, it entails, that time can be expressed as a linear function. The time axis thus becomes just as rigid as the three space axes (x, y, z), by which space-time (x, y, z, t) becomes a flat Euclidean space, with a three-dimensional space and a one-dimensional time axis.

 

Ad 3) No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum
According to the quantum field theory it applies that the interactions cannot propagate at a velocity exceeding the velocity of light in vacuum.
[2]

 

The reason why the velocity of light is constant and independent of the velocity of the object emitting the light, is that light propagates in the zero-point field, which because of its electromagnetic properties cause the velocity of light to become equal to

.

However, that the velocity of light is constant does not mean that light cannot be deflected in a gravitational field, which can be easily inferred from Huygens' principle. This principle says that any point on a wave front of light may be regarded as the souce of secondary waves, and the wave front will propagate as the envelope surface of these secondary waves.

 

Ad 4) Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field

Since time is absolute and universal, it entails, that the space-time (x, y, z, t) is a flat Euclidean space, with a three-dimensional space and one time axis. However, that does not mean that mass and energy cannot be deflected in a gravitational field. Since, mass and energy are equivalent entities, where , the inertial mass mi acts as any other mass, which means, that the inertial mass, among other things, is deflected in a gravitational field.

Thus, in a closed universe it will not be space that bends, but the mass and energy. This is particularly true for the light, whose velocity is also deflected in a gravitational field.
[3]

 

Ad 5) Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time

The fifth condition is based on the assumption that one cannot make something out of nothing - which is merely a rewriting of the first condition - why the Cosmos must always have existed. 

 

Ad 6) We exist

The assumption that we exist, ensures that there is at least one universe, and as space is an infinite, continuous Euclidean space, the second assumption (that the space is Euclidean) guarantee that the fundamental laws of physics are present everywhere.

 

Ad 7) Quantum theory does not allow singularities

Since all matter and energy, are quantized, with a minimum length called the Planck length, the existence of a singularity is at variance with the quantum field theory. Because when the dimensions of the singularity approach zero, the dimensions become less than the Planck length, which means that the singularity cannot contain as much as a single quantum of energy. If the singularity prior to the final collapse were a black hole, it would mean that the mass and energy initially accumulated in the black hole would disappear like snow in the sun, contrary to the law of conservation of energy. Moreover, since the entire Cosmos is one large Euclidean space, it is not even possible for the substance to disappear into another space.

Assumptions for the determination of the energy distribution

















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Deduction of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos

 

The theory is a logical deduction of the composition of the Cosmos, based on the given assumptions.

 

1. Assumption: The law of conservation of energy

The energy is constant [1]  The total amount of matter and energy is final.

 

Comment: Since energy can neither be created nor destroyed, according to the first assumption, the total amount of energy in the Cosmos is constant. If the total amount of energy is constant, the amount of matter and energy must have a maximum. This means that the quantity of substance and energy is final. 

 

2. Assumption: The space is Euclidean

The total amount of matter and energy are final  The space is Euclidean

 The total amount of matter and energy can be enclosed by a hypothetical spherical shell.

 

Comment: If time is absolute and universal and the space is Euclidean, there exists only one connected space in which all the matter and energy must necessarily be. If the quantity of substance and energy are final, it must have a final extension. It means that the volume of energy and matter can be enclosed within an outer limit, so we can place a hypothetical spherical shell around the total amount of matter and energy. 

 

3. Assumption: No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum

The total amount of matter and energy can be enclosed by a hypothetical spherical shell  

No interactions travel faster than the velocity of light in vacuum

 The spherical shell that is required to enclose the total amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum.

 

4. Assumption: Mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field

Since mass and energy are deflected in a gravitational field, there are two possibilities, either

a) mass and energy cannot escape the gravitational field, that is to say, "the universe is closed", or b) mass and energy can escape the gravitational field by which "the universe is open or flat".

 

4a. The spherical shell that is required to enclose the total amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum  The universe is closed
  The total amount of matter and energy can be regarded as one large closed universe, which is situated in an infinite vacuum.

Comment: If the density of the matter is
sufficient
to hold on to the radiation, a constant spherical shell will be able to enclose the total, constant amount of matter and energy. This means that the Cosmos consists of a large closed universe, which is located in an infinite vacuum, and there will never escape any form of energy from the hypothetical spherical shell.

4b. The spherical shell that is required to enclose the total amount of matter and energy grows at a maximum velocity of light in vacuum
 The universe is open or flat
 The spherical shell that is required to enclose the total amount of matter and energy must grow at a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light in vacuum.


Comment: If the density of matter and energy is not
sufficient to hold on to matter and radiation, the radius of the spherical shell must grow at a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light, so as to constantly encircle the total, constant amount of matter and energy.

 

5. Assumption: The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time

The spherical shell that is required to enclose the total amount of matter and energy must grow at a velocity that is greater than zero and less than or equal to the velocity of light in vacuum  The Cosmos has existed for an infinitely long time

 The density of matter and energy will approach zero with the exception of perhaps one or more points of accumulation.

 

When the density of matter does not approach zero in a point of accumulation, as time approaches infinity, it must be a closed universe, from where nothing can escape, or a barren object with a temperature at absolute zero since any form of heat otherwise will have radiated long ago.


Comment: That is to say, if the density of matter and energy is not
sufficient to hold on to matter and radiation, the spherical shell will grow at a rate there is greater than zero, and the limit of the density of matter and energy will, with the exception of some points of accumulation, approach zero - when the time according to the 5th assumption goes towards infinity. If the density of matter and energy does not approach zero in a point of accumulation, when time goes towards infinity, it must be a closed universe from which nothing can escape, or a barren object with a temperature at absolute zero, since any form of heat otherwise will have radiated away long ago.

 

The existence of barren objects is only valid if protons never decay, if they decay, the object will long ago have been converted into radiation energy. Observations have shown, that the limit for the lifetime of bound and free protons in the following decay, pe+π0, is at least
1.9 x 1031 years, with a probability of 90%. [4], [5]

    

6. Assumption: We exist

We exist  There are perhaps one, or more closed universes and barren objects

 There exists at least one closed universe and perhaps more closed universes and barren objects.

 

Comment: As we exist, the space will consist of at least one, and perhaps more, closed universes or barren objects, which are located in an infinite vacuum.

 

1. Assumption: The law of conservation of energy

The energy is constant  There exists at least one closed universe and perhaps more closed universes and barren objects

 There exist a final number of closed universes  The universes can be enclosed by a spherical shell.

 

Comment: Since the total amount of energy is constant according to the first condition, there will be a final amount of energy to share between the closed universes and barren objects. The space will thus consist of a final number of closed universes and barren objects. Because the number is final, we will be able to place a hypothetical spherical shell around them. 



Fig. The composition of the Cosmos.

Within the hypothetical spherical shell, the individual universe or barren object will at some time, either be (or get) in possession of the escape velocity relative to the other universes and barren objects. Thereby, the universe or barren object will be thrown away from the other universes and barren objects and live its own life - or remain together with the remaining bodies. For the universes and barren objects, whose velocities never reach the escape velocity, it must be true, that because of the gravitational forces between them, they will gather in one or more bounded areas. As the Cosmos has existed infinitely long, the bounded areas must, either have merged, or find themselves in a stable, dynamic equilibrium. [6]

 

We can thus conclude that the space consists of an infinite vacuum in which there is one or more closed universes and perhaps barren objects. If there are more closed universes and barren objects, they will move away from each other, with rates that for each of them are bigger than the escape velocity from the overall system, or find themselves in a kind of stable dynamic equilibrium. [6]

 

Since all the universes are closed, and either move away from each other, or is in a state of stable, dynamic equilibrium, they will never come in contact with each other. From which we conclude that each of the universes will have a constant amount of matter and energy. 

 

We can finally establish that since we according to the sixth assumption exist, there must exist at least one closed universe with a constant amount of matter and energy. If there are more closed universes, they will either move away from each other, with rates that for each of them are bigger than the escape velocity from the overall system, or find themselves in a kind of stable, dynamic equilibrium. 

 

Deduction of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos





































































































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The Energy Distribution in Our Own Universe

 

We will now look at our own closed Euclidian Universe, although the conclusions we draw will be true to all universes.


 

                     Fig. A section of our closed Universe.

According to the above considerations, our closed Universe has existed infinitely long. Since the Universe is not homogeneous, there will arise points of accumulation, due to the gravitational forces between the particles. These points of accumulation will, given the gravitational forces between them, merge into larger and denser units, which, as the time approaches infinity - and thus the energy sources are depleted - all end up as black holes or barren objects. These objects will be surrounded by a faint background radiation, which corresponds to the balance between the evapo-ration (Hawking radiation) and the capture of particles from the black holes and barren objects. [7]

If black holes and barren objects are the final stage of the Universe, we will soon cease to exist.  However, as the Universe has existed infinitely long, and since we exist, the matter may after it has accumulated, spread again in the same universe, as space is Euclidian and the quantum theory does not allow singularities. This means that there must exist a process, which is capable of causing an explosion of a black hole in an existing universe, based on a collapse of all or parts of the same universe.

 

Before such a process can take place, there are some conditions to be met. Since energy, according to the first condition neither can be created nor destroyed, one of the conditions must be, that there is a sufficient amount of energy present in the universe, in question, to carry out such an explosion. The only concentrations of energy we know of from our own Universe, which may cause such an explosion - are black holes, and the only explosion we know of that can spread so huge amounts of energy - is a Big Bang.   

 
  
Fig. Our closed Universe.

The Energy Distribution in Our Own Universe















































































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Conclusion of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos

We can finally conclude that the Cosmos consists of an infinite vacuum in which there are one or more closed universes (and perhaps barren objects), which all contain a constant amount of matter and energy. If there are more closed universes and barren objects, they will move away from each other, with velocities that for each of them are larger than the escape velocity from the overall system, or be in a stable, dynamic equilibrium. Moreover, there must, in each of the closed universes, occasionally occur an explosion in the form of a Big Bang, since each universe otherwise ultimately will consist of black holes or barren objects.

 

Comment: In honour of those who can imagine an infinite and (simultaneously) constant amount of energy we will let the amount of mass and energy approach infinity. According to the theory, this can end in two scenarios. If the density of matter and energy is relatively small, the Cosmos will consist of an infinite vacuum, in which there are an infinite number of closed universes and barren objects, which all are in an almost stable, dynamic equilibrium. If, on the contrary, the density of matter and energy is sufficiently large, the Cosmos will only consist of one single coherent Universe. In both cases, there must occasionally occur an explosion in the form of a Big Bang, since the universes, or the Universe, otherwise ultimately will consist of black holes and barren objects.

Conclusion of the Energy Distribution in the Cosmos

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References

 

1. J. R. Mayer, J. P. Joule, S. Carnot: "The Discovery of the Law of Conservation of Energy", Isis,

    Vol. 13, No. 1, Sep., 1929.

 

2. Phillippe H. Eberhard and Ronald R. Ross: "Quantum Field Theory Cannot Provide Faster-than-light
    Communication", Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, California
    94720.

 

3. Albert Einstein, et al.: "The Principle of Relativity", Dover Publications, New York.

 

4. R. M. Bionta et al:"Search for Proton Decay into  ", Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, pp. 27 - 30, 1983.

 

5. G. W. Foster: "A Experimental Limit on Proton Decay: Proton ---> Positron + Neutral Pion", Thesis

   (PH.D.), Harvard University, 1983.

 

6. V. Szebehely, C. F. Peters: "Complete Solution of a General Problem of Three Bodies", Yale

    University Observatory, New Haven, Connecticut, 1967.

 

7. S. Hawking, R. Penrose: "The Nature of Space and Time", Princeton University Press, 1996.

 

References






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